Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials Based on Graphene Oxide: A Review

Author(s): Mojtaba Ebrahimi, Abdolnasser Zakery*.

Journal Name: Current Nanomaterials

Volume 4 , Issue 3 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Nonlinear optical properties of Graphene and Graphene Oxide have been widely used in industry and academia. Graphene oxide disperses easily in water and has easier interaction with other materials because of the presence of oxygen groups. So, this feature of Graphene oxide enables us to manipulate its nonlinear optical properties by combining it with other nanoparticles.

Objective: We introduced recent advances in the nonlinear optical properties of materials based on Graphene oxide.

Methods: Nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting of Graphene oxide and/or its composites with various nanoparticles, considering the wavelength and the incident pulse width, are investigated in this review.

Conclusion: At low intensities and in all pulse regimes, saturation absorption seems to be the dominant mechanism of nonlinear absorption in Graphene oxide, while at higher intensities, the main mechanism is the reverse saturation absorption. In the regime of very short pulses of picoseconds and femtoseconds, the dominant mechanisms of two-photon and multiphoton absorption lead to reverse saturation. In the nanosecond pulse regime, long laser pulses and short pulses with high pulse repetition rates, excited-state absorption and nonlinear scattering due to thermal effects are causing the nonlinear process.

Keywords: Graphene oxide, optical limiting, nonlinear optical properties of nanoparticles, nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction, nonlinear scattering.

Zhang YX, Wang YH. Nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles: a review. RSC Advances 2017; 7: 45129-44.
You JW, Bongu SR, Bao Q, Panoiu NC. Nonlinear optical properties and applications of 2D materials: theoretical and experimental aspects. Nanophotonics 2018; 8: 63-97.
Tutt LW, Boggess TF. A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials. Prog Quantum Electron 1993; 17: 299-338.
Liu Z, Zhang B, Chen Y. Recent progress in two-dimensional nanomaterials for laser protection 2019; 1: 17-43.
Yamashita S. Nonlinear optics in carbon nanotube, graphene, and related 2D materials. APL Photonics 2019. 1; 4(3): 034301.
Johnson-Groh M. A contemporary review of optical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Scilight 2018; 2018510002
Zhang X, Liu S, Jiao K, Hu Y. Fabrication, characterization, and application of ‘Sandwich Type’ electrode based on single walled carbon nanotubes and room temperature ionic liquid. Int J Fund Prac Asp Electroanal 2008; 20(17): 1909-16.
Marega R, Giust D, Kremer A, Bonifazi D. Supramolecular chemistry of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes at interfaces: toward applications. In: Martin N, Nierengarten J-F, Eds. Supramolecular chemistry of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Weinheim, Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2012, pp. 301-347.
Sharma KP, Mahyavanshi RD, Kalita G, Tanemura M. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching. Appl Surf Sci 2017; 393: 428-33.
Subramaniam TK, Vinitha G, Jayakumar CV, Premanand R. Non-linear optical properties of nano particle C60 fullerene using lasers. J Laser Opt Photonics 2018; 5(2): 182.
Couris S, Koudoumas E, Ruth AA, Leach S. Concentration and wavelength dependence of the effective third-order susceptibility and optical limiting of C60 in toluene solution. J Phys At Mol Opt Phys 1995; 28(20): 4537.
Frare MC, Weber V, De Filippo CC, Signorini R, Maggini M, Bozio R. Improving optical limiting of CW lasers with fullerene functionalized gold nanoparticles. Light Manipulating Organic Materials and Devices. Int Soc Opt Photonics 2014; 9181: 16.
Gao Y, Song Y, Li Y, Wang Y, Liu H, Zhu D. Large optical limiting of fullerene-substituted terpyridine palladium nanoparticles. Appl Phys B 2003; 76(7): 761-3.
Frare MC, Weber V, De Filippo CC, Signorini R, Maggini M, Bozio R. Fullerene functionalized gold nanoparticles for optical limiting of continuous wave lasers. Appl Phys B 2019; 125: 47.
Shokuhi RA, Ayub K. Change in the electronic and nonlinear optical properties of Fullerene through its incorporation with Sc-, Fe-, Cu-, and Zn transition metals. Appl Phys, A Mater Sci Process 2019; 125: 430.
Hasan T, Sun Z, Wang F, et al. Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics. Adv Mater 2009; 21(38‐39): 3874-99.
Vivien L, Anglaret E, Riehl D, et al. Optical limiting properties of singlewall carbon nanotubes. Opt Commun 2000; 174(1-4): 271-5.
Mansour K, Soileau MJ, Van Stryland EW. Nonlinear optical properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink). J Opt Soc Am B 1992; 9(7): 1100-9.
Krivenkov RY, Mogileva TN, Mikheev KG, Okotrub AV, Mikheev GM. Heat-induced dip of optical limiting threshold in carbon nanotube aqueous suspension. J Phys Chem C 2018; 122: 16339-45.
Bonaccorso F, Sun Z, Hasan T, Ferrari AC. Graphene photonics and optoelectronics. Nat Photonics 2010; 4: 611-22.
Skákalová V, Kaiser AB, Eds. Graphene: properties, preparation, characterisation and devices. Elsevier: The Netherlands 2014.
Granmayeh RA, Nabavi SH, Koohian A, Madanipour K. Nonlinear responses and quantum yield measurement of DCJ dye under CW laser illumination. J Theor App Phy 2011; 5(1): 35-9.
Zhu J, Li Y, Chen Y, et al. Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting. Carbon 2011; 49(6): 1900-5.
Wang J, Hernandez Y, Lotya M, Coleman JN, Blau WJ. Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions. Adv Mater 2009; 21(23): 2430-5.
Sun Z, Dong N, Xie K, et al. Nanostructured few-layer graphene with superior optical limiting properties fabricated by a catalytic steam etching process. J Phys Chem C 2013; 117: 11811-7.
Zhao H. Nonlinear Optical Experiments on Graphene. In: Rolf. Binder, Rolf H. Binder, Eds. Optical Properties of Graphene. Singapore: World Scientific 2017; pp. 221-40.
Sun X, Zhang B, Li Y, et al. Tunable ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of graphene/MoS2 van der Waals heterostructures and their application in solid-state bulk lasers. ACS Nano 2018; 12(11): 11376-85.
[] [PMID: 30335957]
Maharjan S, Liao KS, Wang AJ, et al. Functionalized few-layered graphene oxide embedded in an organosiloxane matrix for applications in optical limiting. Chem Phys Lett 2019; 714: 149-55.
Yue M, Si J, Yan L, Yu Y, Hou X. Enhanced nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles. Opt Mater Express 2018; 8: 698.
Kalanoor BS, Bisht PB, Ali SA, Baby TT, Ramaprabhu S. Optical nonlinearity of silver-decorated graphene. J Opt Soc Am B 2012; 29: 669-75.
Yu Y, Yan L, Yue M, Xu H. Femtosecond laser-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide hybrid for optical limiting. R Soc Open Sci 2018; 5(7)171436
[] [PMID: 30109038]
Tong Q, Wang Y-H, Yu X-X, et al. Nonlinear optical and multi-photon absorption properties in graphene-ZnO nanocomposites. Nanotechnology 2018; 29(16)165706
[] [PMID: 29384501]
Omidvar A, Rashidian Vaziri MR, Jaleh B. Enhancing the nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide by repairing with palladium nanoparticles. Physica E 2018; 103: 239-45.
Eda G, Lin YY, Mattevi C, et al. Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide. Adv Mater 2010; 22(4): 505-9.
[] [PMID: 20217743]
Eda G, Mattevi C, Yamaguchi H, Kim H, Chhowalla M. Insulator to semimetal transition in graphene oxide. J Phys Chem C 2009; 113(35): 15768-71.
Mathioudakis C, Kopidakis G, Kelires PC, Patsalas P, Gioti M, Logothetidis S. Electronic and optical properties of AC from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations. Thin Solid Films 2005; 482(1-2): 151-5.
Paredes JI, Villar-Rodil S, Martínez-Alonso A, Tascón JMD. Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents. Langmuir 2008; 24(19): 10560-4.
[] [PMID: 18759411]
Liaros N, Aloukos P, Kolokithas-Ntoukas A, et al. Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of graphene oxide colloids. J Phys Chem C 2013; 117(13): 6842-50.
Liu ZB, Zhao X, Zhang XL, et al. Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide. J Phys Chem Lett 2011; 2(16): 1972-7.
Liu Z, Zhang X, Yan X, Chen Y, Tian J. Nonlinear optical properties of graphene-based materials. Chin Sci Bull 2012; 57(23): 2971-82.
Boyd RW. Nonlinear optics. 3rd ed. New York: Elsevier 2003.
Ouyang Q, Yu H, Zhang K, Chen Y. Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS 2 nanoflake array films. J Mater Chem C Mater Opt Electron Devices 2014; 2(31): 6319-25.
Krishna MBM, Venkatramaiah N, Rao DN. Optical transmission control in graphene oxide and its organic composites with ultrashort laser pulses. J Opt 2013; 16(1)015205
He T, Wei W, Ma L, et al. Mechanism studies on the superior optical limiting observed in graphene oxide covalently functionalized with upconversion NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanoparticles. Small 2012; 8(14): 2163-8.
[] [PMID: 22611006]
Kurian P, Vijayan C, Sathiyamoorthy K, Sandeep CS, Philip R. Excitonic transitions and off-resonant optical limiting in CdS quantum dots stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix. Nanoscale Res Lett 2007; 2(11): 561.
He GS, Tan LS, Zheng Q, Prasad PN. Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications. Chem Rev 2008; 108(4): 1245-330.
[] [PMID: 18361528]
Ebrahimi M, Zakery A, Karimipour M, Molaei M. Nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting measurements of graphene oxide-Ag@ TiO2 compounds. Opt Mater 2016; 57: 146-52.
Cuppo FLSA, Neto AMF, Gómez SL, Palffy-Muhoray P. Thermal-lens model compared with the Sheik-Bahae formalism in interpreting z-scan experiments on lyotropic liquid crystals. J Opt Soc Am B 2002; 19(6): 1342-8.
Riggs JE, Walker DB, Carroll DL, Sun YP. Optical limiting properties of suspended and solubilized carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem B 2000; 104(30): 7071-6.
Liaros N, Iliopoulos K, Stylianakis MM, Koudoumas E, Couris S. Optical limiting action of few layered graphene oxide dispersed in different solvents. Opt Mater 2013; 36(1): 112-7.
Zhang XL, Zhao X, Liu ZB, et al. Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material. J Opt 2011; 13(7)075202
Khanzadeh M, Dehghanipour M, Karimipour M, Molaei M. Improvement of non linear optical properties of graphene oxide in mixed with Ag2S@ ZnS core-shells. Opt Mater 2017; 66: 664-70.
Gnoli A, Razzari L, Righini M. Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects. Opt Express 2005; 13(20): 7976-81.
[] [PMID: 19498827]
Nag A, De AK, Goswami D. Two-photon cross-section measurements using an optical chopper: z-scan and two-photon fluorescence schemes. J Phys At Mol Opt Phys 2009; 42(6)065103
Falconieri M, Salvetti G. Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2. Appl Phys B 1999; 69(2): 133-6.
Karimzadeh R, Arandian A. Unusual nonlinear absorption response of graphene oxide in the presence of a reduction process. Laser Phys Lett 2014; 12(2)025401
Krishna MBM, Venkatramaiah N, Venkatesan R, Rao DN. Synthesis and structural, spectroscopic and nonlinear optical measurements of graphene oxide and its composites with metal and metal free porphyrins. J Mater Chem 2012; 22(7): 3059-68.
Zhao C, He C, Dong Y, Song W. The third order nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide-zinc (II) naphthalocyanine hybrids and amino graphene oxide-zinc (II) naphthalocyanine hybrids. Carbon 2019; 145: 640-9.
Jiménez-Pérez JL, Gutiérrez-Fuentes R, López-Gamboa G, Sánchez-Ramírez JF, Correa-Pacheco ZN, Carbajal-Valdéz R. Measurement of optical nonlinear refractive index response of graphene nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous solution by z scan technique. Opt Mater 2018; 84: 236-41.
Kumara K, Shetty TCS, Maidur SR, Patil PS, Dharmaprakash SM. Continuous wave laser induced nonlinear optical response of nitrogen doped graphene oxide. Optik 2019; 178: 384-93.
Ebrahimi M, Zakery A, Molaei M. Optical limiting and nonlinear optical properties of GO functionalized by CdTe quantum dots Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim. Singapore, Singapore. 2017.
Gao Y, Chang Q, Jiao W, et al. Solvent-dependent optical limiting behavior of lead nanowires stabilized by fullerene derivative. Appl Phys B 2007; 88(1): 89-92.
Zakery A, Ebrahimi M. Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of suspensions of GO in ethanol and water. ICOP ICPET 2018; 24: 541-4.
Park S, An J, Jung I, et al. Colloidal suspensions of highly reduced graphene oxide in a wide variety of organic solvents. Nano Lett 2009; 9(4): 1593-7.
[] [PMID: 19265429]
Tung VC, Allen MJ, Yang Y, Kaner RB. High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene. Nat Nanotechnol 2009; 4(1): 25-9.
[] [PMID: 19119278]
Park S, Ruoff RS. Chemical methods for the production of graphenes. Nat Nanotechnol 2009; 4(4): 217-24.
[] [PMID: 19350030]
Liaros N, Koudoumas E, Couris S. Broadband near infrared optical power limiting of few layered graphene oxides. Appl Phys Lett 2014; 104(19)191112
Liu Z, Wang Y, Zhang X, Xu Y, Chen Y, Tian J. Nonlinear optical properties of Graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes. Appl Phys Lett 2009; 94(2)021902

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [151 - 159]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/2405461504666190923114028

Article Metrics

PDF: 13