Ion channels are integral proteins expressed in almost all living cells and are involved in muscle
contraction and nutrient transport. They play a critical role in the normal functioning of the excitable
tissues of the nervous system and regulate the action potential and contraction events. Dysfunction of
genes encodes ion channel proteins, which disrupt the channel function and lead to a number of diseases,
among which is type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Therefore, understanding the complex mechanism of
ion channel receptors is necessary to facilitate the diagnosis and management of treatment. In this review,
we summarize the mechanism of important ion channels and their potential role in the regulation of insulin
secretion along with the limitations of ion channels as therapeutic targets. Furthermore, we discuss the
recent investigations of the mechanism regulating the ion channels in pancreatic beta cells, which suggest
that ion channels are active participants in the regulation of insulin secretion.
Keywords: Ion channels, channelopathies, autoimmune disorder, T1DM, SUR1, pancreatic beta cells.
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