Aim: To provide a review considering microRNAs regulating oncogenes and tumor suppressor
genes during the different stages of cell cycle, controlling carcinogenesis.
Methods: The role of microRNAs involved as oncogenes’ and tumor suppressor genes’ regulators in
cancer was searched in the relevant available literature in MEDLINE, including terms such as “microRNA”,
“oncogenes”, “tumor suppressor genes”, “metastasis”, “cancer” and others.
Results: MicroRNAs determine the expression levels of multiple cell cycle regulators, such as cyclins,
cyclin dependent kinases and other major cell cycle activators including retinoblastoma 1 (RB-
1) and p53, resulting in alteration and promotion/inhibition of the cell cycle.
Conclusion: MicroRNAs are proven to have a key role in cancer pathophysiology by altering the expression
profile of different regulator proteins during cell division cycle and DNA replication. Thus,
by acting as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, they can either promote or inhibit cancer development
and formation, revealing their innovative role as biomarkers and therapeutic tools.