Surfactant Washing to Remove Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil: A Review

Author(s): Jianghong Liu*, Jian Xue, Dandan Yuan, Xiaohang Wei, Huimin Su.

Journal Name: Recent Innovations in Chemical Engineering
Formerly: Recent Patents on Chemical Engineering

Volume 13 , Issue 1 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. The discharge of wastewater containing heavy metals will cause soil pollution for a long time and harm to human health. Soil washing is an environmentally feasible and cost-effective approach for the clean-up of sites contaminated with heavy metals. As a relatively environmental protection agent, surfactants are widely used in soil washing. This paper generalized the methods of remediation of soil from heavy metals, expounded the mechanisms of soil washing by surfactant and the types of surfactants and summarized the application of different surfactants in washing heavy metals from soil. Finally, the application prospects and development trends of surfactant washing heavy metals from soil have been prospected.

Keywords: Soil washing, surfactant, heavy metals, method, mechanism, inorganic solvents.

[1]
Wu G, Kang H, Zhang X, Shao H, Chu L, Ruan C. A critical review on the bio-removal of hazardous heavy metals from contaminated soils: Issues, progress, eco-environmental concerns and opportunities. J Hazard Mater 2010; 174(1-3): 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.113] [PMID: 19864055]
[2]
Minai-Tehrani D, Herfatmanesh A. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions of heavy crude oil -Contaminated soil: A pilot study. Bioremediat J 2007; 11(2): 71-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10889860701351589]
[3]
Dai S, Li Y, Zhou T, Zhao Y. Reclamation of heavy metals from contaminated soil using organic acid liquid generated from food waste: Removal of Cd, Cu, and Zn, and soil fertility improvement. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017; 24(18): 15260-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9139-6] [PMID: 28500550]
[4]
Yi LS, Tao Y, Liu Y, et al. Research progress of heavy metal contaminated soil remediation eluents. J Safety Environ 2012; 12(4): 42-6.
[5]
Picard F, Chaouki J. NaClO/NaOH soil oxidation for the remediation of two real heavy-metal and petroleum contaminated soils. J Environ Chem Eng 2017; 5(3): 2691-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.05.005]
[6]
Mao XH, Jiang R, Xiao W. Use of surfactants for the remediation of contaminated soils: A review. J Hazard Mater 2014; 11(4): 17-32.
[PMID: 25528485]
[7]
Hawley EL, Deeb RA, Kavanaugh MC, et al. Treatment technologies for Chromium(VI). Cheliform 2006; 37(14): 756-61.
[8]
Liu X, Wang JT, Zhang M, et al. Leaching and remediation of Cu and Pb contaminated loess by chelating agents and biosurfactants. Environ Sci (Ruse) 2013; 34(4): 1590-7.
[PMID: 23798147]
[9]
Peng W, Li X, Xiao S, et al. Review of remediation technologies for sediments contaminated by heavy metals. J Soils Sediments 2018; 18(7): 1-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11368-018-1921-7]
[10]
Lin CC, Lin HL. Remediation of soil contaminated with the heavy metal (Cd2+). J Hazard Mater 2005; 122(1-2): 7-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.02.017] [PMID: 15943924]
[11]
Yao Z, Li J, Xie H, et al. Review on remediation technologies of soil contaminated by heavy metals. Procedia Environ Sci 2012; 16(4): 722-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2012.10.099]
[12]
Yang W, Zhang T, Li S, et al. Metal removal from and microbial property improvement of a multiple heavy metals contaminated soil by phytoextraction with a cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H. J Soils Sediments 2014; 14(8): 1385-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11368-014-0875-7]
[13]
Bell LC, Mulligan DR, Schwenke GD. Soil stripping and replacement for the rehabilitation of bauxite-mined land at Weipa. I. Initial changes to soil organic matter and related parameters. Soil Res 2000; 38(2): 345-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SR99043]
[14]
Vocciante M, Caretta A, Bua L, et al. Enhancements in electrokinetic remediation technology: Environmental assessment in comparison with other configurations and consolidated solutions. Chem Eng J 2016; 289(96): 123-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.12.065]
[15]
Alcántara MT, Gómez J, Pazos M, Sanromán MA. Electrokinetic remediation of PAH mixtures from kaolin. J Hazard Mater 2010; 179(1-3): 1156-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.010] [PMID: 20359817]
[16]
Rosestolato D, Bagatin R, Ferro S. Electrokinetic remediation of soils polluted by heavy metals (mercury in particular). Chem Eng J 2015; 264(1): 16-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.11.074]
[17]
Hao AN, Zhan M, Cheng H, et al. Effect of electrokinetic remediation on heavy metal contaminated soil by adding acetic acid. Chinese J Environ Eng 2017; 11(9): 5283-90.
[18]
Rojo A, Hansen HK, Monárdez O. Electrokinetic remediation of mine tailings by applying a pulsed variable electric field. Miner Eng 2014; 55(1): 52-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2013.09.004]
[19]
Mena E, Villaseñor J, Rodrigo MA, et al. Electrokinetic remediation of soil polluted with insoluble organics using biological permeable reactive barriers: Effect of periodic polarity reversal and voltage gradient. Chem Eng J 2016; 299(1): 30-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.04.049]
[20]
Szentgyörgyi H, Moroń D, Nawrocka A, Tofilski A, Woyciechowski M. Forewing structure of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis developing on heavy metal pollution gradient. Ecotoxicol 2017; 26(8): 1031-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-017-1831-2] [PMID: 28689226]
[21]
Yang L, Donahoe RJ, Redwine JC. In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: An experimental study. Sci Total Environ 2007; 387(1-3): 28-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.06.024] [PMID: 17673278]
[22]
Lopareva-Pohu A, Pourrut B, Waterlot C, et al. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial: Part 1. Influence on soil parameters and metal extractability. Sci Total Environ 2011; 409(3): 647-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.10.040] [PMID: 21106226]
[23]
Mallampati SR, Mitoma Y, Okuda T, Sakita S, Kakeda M. Enhanced heavy metal immobilization in soil by grinding with addition of nanometallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture. Chemosphere 2012; 89(6): 717-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.030] [PMID: 22818089]
[24]
Arwidsson Z, Elgh-Dalgren K, von Kronhelm T, Sjöberg R, Allard B, van Hees P. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids. J Hazard Mater 2010; 173(1-3): 697-704.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.141] [PMID: 19767142]
[25]
Kulikowska D, Gusiatin ZM, Bułkowska K, Klik B. Feasibility of using humic substances from compost to remove heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) from contaminated soil aged for different periods of time. J Hazard Mater 2015; 300(1): 882-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.08.022] [PMID: 26462121]
[26]
Cao Y, Zhang S, Wang G, et al. Enhancing the soil heavy metals removal efficiency by adding HPMA and PBTCA along with plant washing agents. J Hazard Mater 2017; 339(1): 33-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.06.007] [PMID: 28609727]
[27]
Chaney RL, Malik M, Li YM, et al. Phytoremediation of soil metals. Curr Opin Biotechnol 1997; 8(3): 279-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0958-1669(97)80004-3] [PMID: 9206007]
[28]
Ahemad M. Remediation of metalliferous soils through the heavy metal resistant plant growth promoting bacteria: Paradigms and prospects. Arab J Chem 2014; 158(20): 158-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.11.020]
[29]
Benzon HRL, Sang CL. Pyroligneous acids enhance phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils using mustard. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 2017; 48(5): 1-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2017.1406102]
[30]
Sarwar N, Imran M, Shaheen MR, et al. Phytoremediation strategies for soils contaminated with heavy metals: Modifications and future perspectives. Chemosphere 2017; 171(1): 710-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.116] [PMID: 28061428]
[31]
Wu L, Li Z, Akahane I, et al. Effects of organic amendments on Cd, Zn and Cu bioavailability in soil with repeated phytoremediation by Sedum plumbizincicola. Int J Phytoremediation 2012; 14(10): 1024-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2011.649436] [PMID: 22908662]
[32]
Park J, Kim JY, Kim KW. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals using Brassica napus. Geosystem Eng 2012; 15(1): 10-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12269328.2012.674428]
[33]
Cunningham SD, Berti WR, Huang JW. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Trends Biotechnol 1995; 13(9): 393-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(00)88987-8]
[34]
Dhal B, Thatoi HN, Das NN, Pandey BD. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: A review. J Hazard Mater 2013; 250-251(30): 272-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.01.048] [PMID: 23467183]
[35]
Zhiqiang YU. Microbial remediation of heavy metalloid contaminated soil: A review. Agric Sci Technol 2016; 17(1): 85-91.
[36]
Löser C, Seidel H, Zehnsdorf A, et al. Improvement of the bioavailability of hydrocarbons by applying nonionic surfactants during the microbial remediation of a sandy soil. Acta Biotechnol 2010; 20(2): 99-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/abio.370200205]
[37]
Cui Z, Xu Z, Yang H, et al. Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution utilizing composite microbial agent of Mucor circinelloides, Actinomucor sp. and Mortierella sp. J Environ Chem Eng 2017; 5(4): 3616-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.07.021]
[38]
Wang T, Sun H, Mao H, et al. The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bio augmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community. J Hazard Mater 2014; 278(1): 483-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.06.028] [PMID: 24998205]
[39]
Ahn CK, Woo SH, Park JM. Surface solubilization of phenanthrene by surfactant sorbed on soils with different organic matter contents. J Hazard Mater 2010; 177(1-3): 799-806.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.12.104] [PMID: 20096994]
[40]
Trellu C, Mousset E, Pechaud Y, et al. Removal of hydrophobic organic pollutants from soil washing/flushing solutions: A critical review. J Hazard Mater 2016; 306(1): 149-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.12.008] [PMID: 26707974]
[41]
Sahle-Demessie E, Grosse DW, Bates ER. Solvent extraction and soil washing treatment of contaminated soils from wood preserving sites: Bench-scale studies. Rem J 2010; 10(3): 85-109.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rem.3440100308]
[42]
Zhou ZY, Wang HT, Lu WJ. Characterizing the photodegradation ability of pentachlorophenol in β-cyclodextrin soil washing solution. Appl Mech Mater 2015; 768(1): 155-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.768.155]
[43]
Richter RB, Flachberger H. Soil washing and thermal desorption: Reliable techniques for remediating materials contaminated with mercury. BHM Berg- Huttenmann Monh 2010; 155(12): 571-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00501-010-0617-0]
[44]
Mohamed MA, Efligenir A, Husson J, et al. Extraction of heavy metals from a contaminated soil by reusing chelating agent solutions. J Environ Chem Eng 2013; 1(3): 363-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2013.05.015]
[45]
Chiang PN, Tong OY, Chiou CS, Lin YA, Wang MK, Liu CC. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting. J Hazard Mater 2016; 301(1): 100-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.08.015] [PMID: 26355411]
[46]
Satyro S, Race M, Marotta R, et al. Simulated solar photocatalytic processes for the simultaneous removal of EDDS, Cu(II), Fe(III) and Zn(II) in synthetic and real contaminated soil washing solutions. J Environ Chem Eng 2014; 2(4): 1969-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2014.08.017]
[47]
Mota IDOD, Castro JAD, Rui DGC, et al. Study of electro flotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals. J Mat Res Technol 2015; 4(2): 109-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2014.11.004]
[48]
Liu QJ, Chen D, Deng Y. Progress in the application of surfactants in remediation of contaminated soil. Soil Bulletin 2017; 48(1): 243-9.
[49]
Wu T, Yi YL, Xie WJ, et al. Screening and identification of salt-tolerant bacteria producing bio surfactants and their remediation effects on oil-contaminated saline soils. J Environ Sci (China) 2013; 33(12): 3359-67.
[50]
Gu XN, Chen H, Li SS, et al. Production of biosurfactants and their application in environmental pollution control. Environ Sci Technol 2012; 35(61): 155-62.
[51]
Li G, Guo SH, Hu JX. The influence of clay minerals and surfactants on hydrocarbon removal during the washing of petroleum- contaminated soil. Chem Eng J 2016; 286(5): 191-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.10.006]
[52]
Guo YP, Hu YY, Lin H, Ou XL. Sorption and desorption of 17α-ethinylestradiol onto sediments affected by rhamnolipidic biosurfactants. J Hazard Mater 2018; 344(1): 707-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.11.005] [PMID: 29154096]
[53]
Panizza M, Delucchi M, Cerisola G. Electrochemical degradation of anionic surfactants. J Appl Electrochem 2005; 35(4): 357-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10800-005-0793-x]
[54]
Pei L, Wu P, Liu J, et al. Effect of nonionic surfactant on the micro‐emulsifying water in silicone media. J Surfactants Deterg 2017; 20(1): 247-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11743-016-1891-y]
[55]
Domingues PM, Almeida A, Leal LS, et al. Bacterial production of bio surfactants under micro aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 2017; 16(2): 1-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11157-017-9429-y]
[56]
Fisseha E. Biosurfactant from Paenibacillus dendritiformis and its application in assisting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and motor oil sludge removal from contaminated soil and sand media. Process Saf Environ Prot 2015; 98(9): 354-64.
[57]
Lei GJ, Chen ZL, Liu QJ, et al. Biosurfactants and their application in leaching of heavy metal contaminated soil. Soil Bulletin 2013; 44(6): 1508-11.
[58]
Li S, Hu XJ, Li YS, et al. Surfactant elution and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Environ Eng 2017; 11(3): 1899-905.
[59]
Zhang Y, Liao BH, Zeng M, et al. Application of surfactants in remediation of contaminated soil. J Hunan Agriculture University (Natural Sci Ed) 2007; (3): 348-52.
[60]
Rahman KS, Rahman TJ, McClean S, Marchant R, Banat IM. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant production by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using low-cost raw materials. Biotechnol Prog 2002; 18(6): 1277-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bp020071x] [PMID: 12467462]
[61]
Silva SNRL, Farias CBB, Rufino RD, Luna JM, Sarubbo LA. Glycerol as substrate for the production of bio surfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCP0992. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2010; 79(1): 174-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2010.03.050] [PMID: 20417068]
[62]
Deshpande S, Shiau BJ, Wade D, et al. Surfactant selection for enhancing ex situ soil washing. Water Res 1999; 33(2): 351-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00234-6]
[63]
Ye M, Sun M, Kengara FO, et al. Evaluation of soil washing process with carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin and carboxymethyl chitosan for recovery of PAHs/heavy metals/fluorine from metallurgic plant site. J Environ Sci (China) 2014; 26(8): 1661-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2014.06.006] [PMID: 25108722]
[64]
Pinto LJ, Moore MM. Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils by surfactant and remediation of this effluent by Penicillium spp. Environ Toxicol Chem 2010; 19(7): 1741-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620190706]
[65]
Nivas BT, Sabatini DA, Shiau BJ. Surfactant enhanced remediation of subsurface chromium contamination. Water Res 1996; 30(1): 511-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(95)00200-6]
[66]
Hemlata B, Selvin J, Tukaram K. Optimization of iron chelating bio surfactant production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NBS-11. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2015; 4(2): 135-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2015.02.002]
[67]
Yang K, Zhu L, Xing B. Enhanced soil washing of phenanthrene by mixed solutions of TX100 and SDBS. Environ Sci Technol 2006; 40(13): 4274-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es060122c] [PMID: 16856746]
[68]
Guo H, Liu Z, Yang S, Sun C. The feasibility of enhanced soil washing of p-nitrochlorobenzene (pNCB) with SDBS/Tween80 mixed surfactants. J Hazard Mater 2009; 170(2-3): 1236-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.101] [PMID: 19540665]
[69]
Chen CX. Polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil washing with mixed surfactants enhanced by electrokinetics. Chem Res Chin Univ 2016; 32(2): 261-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40242-016-5369-2]
[70]
Yan J, Gao W, Qian L, Han L, Chen Y, Chen M. Remediation of nitrobenzene contaminated soil by combining surfactant enhanced soil washing and effluent oxidation with persulfate. PLoS One 2015; 10(8)e0132878
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132878] [PMID: 26266532]
[71]
Zhao BW, Wu YQ, Ma CY, Zhu RJ. Washing copper (II)-contaminated soil using surfactant solutions. Huan Jing Ke Xue 2009; 30(10): 3067-71.
[PMID: 19968132]
[72]
Zhao HM, Liang YL, Zhao WY. Influence of Triton X-100 and SDBS on the Sorption of Streptomycin Sulfate from Soil. Adv Mat Res 2013; 4(2): 610-3.
[73]
Tong M, Yuan S. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: A review. J Hazard Mater 2012; 229-230(1): 1-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.092] [PMID: 22709849]
[74]
Guo P, Chen W, Li Y, Chen T, Li L, Wang G. Selection of surfactant in remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by comparison of surfactant effectiveness. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014; 21(2): 1370-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1993-2] [PMID: 23900948]
[75]
Yang XP, Xie LX, Tang J, et al. Removal and degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene from soil by coupling surfactant washing with photocatalysis. Appl Mech Mater 2013; 446-447(1): 1485-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.446-447.1485]
[76]
Davezza M, Fabbri D, Pramauro E, Prevot AB. Photocatalytic degradation of chlorophenols in soil washing wastes containing Brij 35. Correlation between the degradation kinetics and the pollutants-micelle binding. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2013; 20(5): 3224-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1242-0] [PMID: 23065604]
[77]
Liu J. Remediation of phenanthrene contaminated soils by nonionic surfactants enhanced soil washing coupled with ozone oxidation. Ozone Sci Eng 2018; 40(5): 1-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01919512.2018.1466689]
[78]
Li X. Surfactant enhanced removal of petroleum products from a contaminated soil with sand and clay components. Building Civil Environ Eng 2009; 10(8): 1-14.
[79]
Bandala ER, Aguila F, Torres LG. Surfactant-enhanced soil washing for the remediation of sites contaminated with pesticides. Land Contamination Reclamation 2010; 18(2): 151-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2462/09670513.991]
[80]
Gitipour S, Hedayati M, Madadian E. Soil washing for reduction of aromatic and aliphatic contaminants in soil. Clean- Soil. Air Water 2015; 43(10): 1419-25.
[81]
Zhong JK, Zhao BW, Zhu K, Ma FF, Yang XC, Ran JY. Remediation of Cu/phenanthrene and combined contaminated loess soil by chemical-enhanced washing. Huan Jing Ke Xue 2011; 32(10): 3106-12.
[PMID: 22279931]
[82]
Mao YE, Sun MM, Xie SN, et al. Feasibility of tea saponin-enhanced soil washing in a soybean oil-water solvent system to extract PAHs/Cd/Ni efficiently from a coking plant site. Pedosphere 2017; 27(3): 452-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60341-2]
[83]
Harendra S, Vipulanandan C. Sorption and transport studies of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 in clayey soil. J Environ Sci (China) 2013; 25(3): 576-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60070-9] [PMID: 23923432]
[84]
Li HL, Chen JJ, Wu W, et al. Distribution patterns of PAHs in soils from coking plant and the particle-size cut points of soil washing. Huan Jing Ke Xue 2011; 32(4): 1154-8.
[PMID: 21717762]
[85]
Van Bogaert INA, Buyst D, Martins JC, Roelants SL, Soetaert WK. Synthesis of bolaform biosurfactants by an engineered Starmerella bombicola yeast. Biotechnol Bioeng 2016; 113(12): 2644-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.26032] [PMID: 27317616]
[86]
Mulligan. Metal removal from contaminated soil and sediments by the biosurfactant surfactin. Environ Sci Technol 1999; 33(1): 3812-20.
[87]
Hung W, Huang WY, Lin C, et al. The use of ultrasound-assisted anaerobic compost tea washing to remove poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) from highly contaminated field soils. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017; 24(23): 18936-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9517-0] [PMID: 28656572]
[88]
Zhou W, Wang X, Chen C, et al. Enhanced soil washing of phenanthrene by a plant-derived natural biosurfactant, Sapindus saponin. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2013; 425(2): 122-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.02.055]
[89]
Anna LMS, Soriano AU, Gomes AC, et al. Use of biosurfactant in the removal of oil from contaminated sandy soil. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 2010; 82(7): 687-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1741]
[90]
Maity JP, Huang YM, Hsu CM, et al. Removal of Cu, Pb and Zn by foam fractionation and a soil washing process from contaminated industrial soils using soapberry-derived saponin: A comparative effectiveness assessment. Chemosphere 2013; 92(10): 1286-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.04.060] [PMID: 23714147]
[91]
Hong KJ, Tokunaga S, Kajiuchi T. Evaluation of remediation process with plant-derived biosurfactant for recovery of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Chemosphere 2002; 49(4): 379-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00321-1] [PMID: 12365835]
[92]
Zhao Y. Method and device for extracting heavy metal ions from soil. CN101704017B 2012.
[93]
Li Y. A method of removing heavy metals from soil by using water-based foam formed by surfactants. CN103909090B 2016.
[94]
Ding N, Xu BN, Peng C. Study on the removal of cadmium and lead from kaolin by surfactant washing. Environ Sci Technol 2017; 40(8): 184-8.
[95]
Torres LG, Lopez RB, Beltran M. Removal of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from a highly contaminated industrial soil using surfactant enhanced soil washing. Phy Chem of the Earth 2012; (37/38/39): 30-6
[96]
Ramamurthy A, Schalchian H. Surfactant assisted removal of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) from contaminated soils. Environ Prot Eng 2013; 39(3): 87-99.
[97]
Cao M, Hu Y, Sun Q, Wang L, Chen J, Lu X. Enhanced desorption of PCB and trace metal elements (Pb and Cu) from contaminated soils by saponin and EDDS mixed solution. Environ Pollut 2013; 174(5): 93-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.11.015] [PMID: 23246752]
[98]
Cui J, Xue WP, Yan ZY, et al. Experimental study on remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by different surfactants. J Dalian University Technol 2013; 32(4): 279-82.
[99]
Jiang YF, Zhan HY, Yuan JM. Experimental study on heavy metals in soil with surfactant enhanced EDTA complex elution irrigation. Jof Agro-Environ Sci 2006; 1(1): 119-23.
[100]
Zhou W, Zhu L. Solubilization of pyrene by anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants. J Hazard Mater 2004; 109(1-3): 213-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.03.018] [PMID: 15177761]
[101]
Yu H, Zhu L, Zhou W. Enhanced desorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil-water systems with the presence of anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants. J Hazard Mater 2007; 142(1-2): 354-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.08.028] [PMID: 16987596]
[102]
Rodella I, Vaccaro C, Melchiorre M, et al. Textural changes and heavy metal distribution in sediments after decontamination treatment by soil washing and attrition scrubber. J Soils Sediments 2017; 17(6): 1-14.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 13
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Page: [3 - 16]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/2405520412666190912151737
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 13
HTML: 2
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1