Background: Cannabinoid receptor 1 has its crystallographic structure available in complex with agonists and inverse agonists, which paved the way to establish an understanding of the structural basis of interactions with ligands. Dipyrone is a prodrug with analgesic capabilities and which is widely used in some countries. Recently it was shown some evidence of a dipyrone metabolite acting over the Cannabinoid Receptor 1.
Objective: Our goal here is to explore the dipyrone metabolite 4-aminoantipyrine as a Cannabinoid Receptor 1 agonist, reviewing dipyrone characteristics, and investigating the structural basis for its interaction with Cannabinoid Receptor 1.
Method: We reviewed here recent functional studies related to the dipyrone metabolite focusing on its action as a Cannabinoid Receptor 1 agonist. We also analyzed protein-ligand interactions for this complex obtained through docking simulations against the crystallographic structure of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1.
Results: Analysis of the crystallographic structure and docking simulations revealed that most of the interactions present in the docked pose were also present in the crystallographic structure of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and agonist.
Conclusion: Analysis of the complex of 4-aminoantipyrine and Cannabinoid Receptor 1 revealed the pivotal role played by residues Phe 170, Phe 174, Phe 177, Phe 189, Leu 193, Val 196, and Phe 379, besides the conserved hydrogen bond at Ser 383. The mechanistic analysis and the present computational study suggest that the dipyrone metabolite 4-aminoantipyrine interacts with Cannabinoid Receptor 1.