Some transformations are not possible with ground-state reactions even in the presence of catalyst, hence they are performed under photochemical conditions. Electron transfer occurred even with the photochemical excitement of one molecule where redox reaction is not possible at the ground state. The side products were obtained from ground-state reactions. For C-C bond formation during photochemical reactions there was no requirement of any chemical activation of the substrates. Therefore, these reactions are presented here for the synthesis of fused five-membered O-heterocycles in the context of sustainable processes from 1964 to 2019.
Keywords: Heterocycles, Oxygen, Photochemical., veterinary compounds , five-membered heterocycles , photochemical ring
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