DNA methylation is considered as a crucial part of epigentic modifications and a popular research topic in recent decades. It usually occurs with a methyl group adding to the fifth carbon atom of cytosine while the base sequence of DNA remains unchanged. DNA methylation has significant influences on maintaining of cell functions, genetic imprinting, embryonic development and tumorigenesis procedures and hence the analysis of DNA methylation is of great medical significance. With the development of analytical techniques and further research on DNA methylation, numerous DNA methylation detection strategies based on biosensing technology have been developed to fulfill various study requirement. This article reviewed the development of electrochemistry and optical biosensing analysis of DNA methylation in recent years, in addition, we also reviewed some recent advances in the detection of DNA methylation using new techniques, such as nanopore biosensors, and highlighted the key technical and biological challenges involved in these methods. We hope this paper will provide useful information for the selection and establishment of analysis of DNA methylation.
Keywords: DNA methylation, methylation assays, electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, cancer diagnosis
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