Indirubins as Multi-target Anti-Tumor Agents
Pp. 148-180 (33)
Yasamin Dabiri, Guangqi Song and Xinlai Cheng
The traditional use of indirubin for the treatment of leukaemia has opened a
vast field of research, studying the anti-tumor properties of indirubin and its derivatives
(IRDs) against a wide range of malignancies. The cytotoxic effects of indirubin has
been primarily attributed to its inhibitory function on a number of protein kinases,
including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), glycogen-synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), and
receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the past few decades, a lot of effort has been
directed to the chemical modification of indirubin’s backbone towards better
pharamcokinetic properties. This has led to the synthesis of various derivatives with
new biological activities. We here review from the discovery of indirubin to the
development of novel IRDs, and highlight the recent progress on how indirubins
influence multiple cancer-associated signaling networks, leading to anti-proliferative
and pro-apoptotic effects. Furthermore, we discuss the therapeutic use of indirubins in
anti-cancer settings, as well as their potential for future clinical application.
Casein Kinases (CKs), Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK), Indirubin,
Indirubin Derivative (IRD), Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (IGFR),
Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK), Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB), Receptor
Tyrosine Kinase (RTK), Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ), Ubiquitin-
Specific Proteases (USPs).
Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical Biology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.