Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is chronic relapsing skin disease with a characteristic phenotype and typically distributed skin lesions. The AD results due to a complex interaction between responsible genes, host’s environment, pharmacological abnormalities and immunological factors. In previous decades, researchers had shown marked interest due to increased prevalence in developed countries. Objective: In this review, basics along with the advances in pathogenesis and management of AD have been discussed. Discussion: The immunological factors i.e Innate Lymphoid Cells, IL-22 and Toll like receptors have important role in the pathogenesis. The proactive topical therapy by skin care, topical glucocorticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors has improved effect in the management of AD. The human monoclonal antibody based systemic drug (Duplimab) is a considerable advancement in the management of AD. Other monoclonal antibody based drugs (Lebrikizumab, Tralokinumab, Apremilast and Nemolizumab) are in different phases of clinical trials.
Conclusion: A better understanding of genetics and immunoregulatory cascade will lead to the development of efficacious drugs and better management therapy preventing the relapse of flares and improved quality of life of AD patients.