Are Viruses and Parasites Linked to Celiac Disease? A Question that Still has no Definite Answer

Author(s): Aref Shariati, Hamid R. Aslani, Mohammad R.H. Shayesteh, Ali Taghipour, Ahmad Nasser, Hossein Safari, Mahmood Alizade-Sani, Amin Dehghan, Taher Azimi*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 20 , Issue 14 , 2019

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Abstract:

Celiac Disease (CD) is a complex autoimmune enteropathy of the small intestine that commonly occurs in genetically predisposed individuals due to intake of gluten and related proteins. Gluten consumption, duration of breast-feeding, various infections, especially frequent intestinal infections, vaccinations and use of antibiotics can be linked to CD. It is predicted that it affects 1% of the global population and its incidence rate is increasing. Most of the people with the HLA-DQ2 or HLADQ8 are at a higher risk of developing this disease. The link between infections and autoimmune diseases has been very much considered in recent years. In several studies, we explained that pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms might have multiple roles in initiation, exacerbation, and development of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). In various studies, the relationship between infections caused by viruses, such as Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Rotavirus, Hepatitis C (HCV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Influenza virus, and parasites including Giardia spp. and Toxoplasma gondii with CD has been raised. However, increasing evidence proposes that some of these microorganisms, especially helminths, can also have protective and even therapeutic roles in the CD process. Therefore, in order to determine the role of microorganisms in the process of this disease, we attempted to summarize the evidence suggesting the role of viral and parasitic agents in pathogenesis of CD.

Keywords: Celiac disease, gluten, viral infection, parasites, intestinal infection, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

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Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 14
Year: 2019
Page: [1181 - 1193]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1389201020666190828124924
Price: $58

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