Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for medical purposes since the ancient
time and has gradually gained recognition worldwide. Nowadays, patients with thrombus presiding to anticoagulant/
antiplatelet drugs prefer taking TCM. However, an increasing number of studies on herb–drug interactions have
been shown. Nevertheless, findings are frequently conflicting and vague. In this review, we discuss the herb–drug
interactions between TCM and anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs to provide guidance on concomitant ingestion with
Methods: We undertook a structured search of medicine and drug databases for peer-reviewed literature using focused
Results: Danshen, Ginkgo, Ginger, H. Perforatum, SMY and Puerarin injection had directional regulation effects on
the efficacy of anticoagulant drugs by altering the CYPs, pharmacokinetic indexs and hemorheological parameters.
H. Perforatum inhibited the efficacy of Clopidogrel by enhancing the CYP3A4 activity and Ginkgo increased the
efficacy of Ticlopidine. Additionally, Renshen, the formulae except SMY and injections except Puerarin injection
could increase or decrease the efficacy of anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs via regulating the CYPs, platelet aggregation,
hemorheological parameters and others.
Conclusion: Some cases have reported that TCMs may increase the bleeding risk or has no effect on coagulation
when anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs are concurrently used. However, pharmacokinetic studies have presented either
consistent or slightly varying results. So it is difficult to ascertain whether the concurrent use of TCM may increase
or reduce the pharmacologic effects of anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs with adverse reactions. Therefore, herb–drug
interactions of TCM and anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs should be further explored and defined.