Background: Envenomation caused by Bothrops alternatus is common in Southern Brazil.
Acute Kidney Injury occurs after Bothrops snakebite and more information is necessaryrequired to
understand its mechanism.
Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of Bothrops alternatus venom (BaV) on renal cells
and rat isolated kidney function.
Methods: Wistar rats (n = 6, weighing 260-320 g) were perfused with a Krebs-Henseleit solution containing
6 g 100 mL-1 of bovine serum albumin. After 30 minutes, the kidneys were perfused with BaV
to a final concentration of 1 and 3 μgmL-1; and subsequently were evaluated for Perfusion Pressure
(PP), Renal Vascular Resistance (RVR), Urinary Flow (UF), Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), and
percentage of electrolyte tubular transport. Renal histological analysis, cytokine release, oxidative
stress and cytotoxicity in renal proximal tubular cells were assessed.
Results: BaV reduced PP, RVR, GFR, UF, total and proximal sodium transport (%TNa+), and chloride
(%TCl-) in the isolated kidney perfusion model. Histological analysis of perfused kidneys disclosed the
presence of proteinaceous material in the glomeruli and renal tubules, vacuolar tubular epithelial cell
degeneration, Bowman's capsule degeneration, swelling of glomerular epithelial cells, glomerular atrophy
and degeneration, and the presence of intratubular protein. Cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10)
and oxidative stress were increased in the kidneys. The viability of LLC-MK2 cells (IC50: 221.3
μg/mL) was decreased by BaV and necrosis was involved in cell death.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that BaV modifies functional parameters in an isolated perfused
kidney model and has cytotoxic effects on renal lineage cells.