Tissue engineering focuses on developing biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve
tissue functions. The three main components of its application are scaffold, cell and growthstimulating
signals. Scaffolds composed of biomaterials mainly function as the structural support for ex
vivo cells to attach and proliferate. They also provide physical, mechanical and biochemical cues for
the differentiation of cells before transferring to the in vivo site. Collagen has been long used in various
clinical applications, including drug delivery. The wide usage of collagen in the clinical field can be
attributed to its abundance in nature, biocompatibility, low antigenicity and biodegradability. In addition,
the high tensile strength and fibril-forming ability of collagen enable its fabrication into various
forms, such as sheet/membrane, sponge, hydrogel, beads, nanofibre and nanoparticle, and as a coating
material. The wide option of fabrication technology together with the excellent biological and physicochemical
characteristics of collagen has stimulated the use of collagen scaffolds in various tissue engineering
applications. This review describes the fabrication methods used to produce various forms of
scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications.
Keywords: Collagen, decellularisation, crosslinking, nanofibres, rapid-prototyping, cell, structure.
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