Achievements in Cancer Research and its Therapeutics in Hundred Years

Author(s): Sravanthi Shastri, Bhaswati Chatterjee, Suman S. Thakur*.

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 19 , Issue 17 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Cancer research has progressed leaps and bounds over the years. This review is a brief overview of the cancer research, milestone achievements and therapeutic studies on it over the one hundred ten years which would give us an insight into how far we have come to understand and combat this fatal disease leading to millions of deaths worldwide. Modern biology has proved that cancer is a very complex disease as still we do not know precisely how it triggers. It involves several factors such as protooncogene, oncogene, kinase, tumor suppressor gene, growth factor, signalling cascade, micro RNA, immunity, environmental factors and carcinogens. However, modern technology now helps the cancer patient on the basis of acquired and established knowledge in the last hundred years to save human lives.

Keywords: Anti-cancer, Cancer, Oncogene, Therapeutics, Tumour, Drug discovery, Drug Target, Medicinal Chemistry.

Xu, J.; Mao, W. Overview of research and development for anticancer drugs. J. Cancer Ther., 2016, 7, 762-772.
[[DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.710077]
Cancer Statistics National cancer institute at the national institutes of health., 2018.(Available at:. cancer/understanding/statistics
Balmain, A. Cancer genetics: From Boveri and Mendel to microarrays. Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2001, 1(1), 77-82.
[] [PMID: 11900254]
Boveri, T. Über mehrpolige Mitosen als Mittel zur Analyse des Zellkerns Verh. Phys.-Med. Ges. Vürzb. N.F, 1902, 35, 60-90.
Boveri, T. Über die Konstitution der chromatischen Kernsub-stanz. Verh. Deutsch. Zool. Ges. Würzb., 1903, 13, 10-33.
Boveri, T. Ergebnisse uber die konstitution derchromatischen substanz des zellkerns; Gustav Fischer: Jena, 1904.
Goodman, L.S.; Wintrobe, M.M. Nitrogen mustard therapy; use of methyl-bis (beta-chloroethyl) amine hydrochloride and tris (beta-chloroethyl) amine hydrochloride for Hodgkin’s disease, lymphosarcoma, leukemia and certain allied and miscellaneous disorders. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1946, 132, 126-132.
[] [PMID: 20997191]
Bhattarai, P.; Hameed, S.; Dai, Z. Recent advances in anti-angiogenic nanomedicines for cancer therapy. Nanoscale, 2018, 10(12), 5393-5423.
[] [PMID: 29528075]
Liu, X.; Wu, F.; Ji, Y.; Yin, L. Recent Advances in anti-cancer protein/peptide delivery. Bioconjug. Chem., 2019, 30(2), 305-324.
[] [PMID: 30428665]
Cohen, S. Purification of a nerve-growth promoting protein from the mouse salivary gland and its neuro-cytotoxic antiserum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1960, 46(3), 302-311.
[] [PMID: 16578483]
Fukuoka, M.; Yano, S.; Giaccone, G.; Tamura, T.; Nakagawa, K.; Douillard, J.Y.; Nishiwaki, Y.; Vansteenkiste, J.; Kudoh, S.; Rischin, D.; Eek, R.; Horai, T.; Noda, K.; Takata, I.; Smit, E.; Averbuch, S.; Macleod, A.; Feyereislova, A.; Dong, R.P.; Baselga, J. Multi-institutional randomized phase II trial of gefitinib for previously treated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (The IDEAL 1 Trial).[corrected] J. Clin. Oncol., 2003, 21(12), 2237-2246.
[] [PMID: 12748244]
Pérez-Soler, R.; Chachoua, A.; Hammond, L.A.; Rowinsky, E.K.; Huberman, M.; Karp, D.; Rigas, J.; Clark, G.M.; Santabárbara, P.; Bonomi, P. Determinants of tumor response and survival with erlotinib in patients with non--small-cell lung cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 2004, 22(16), 3238-3247.
[] [PMID: 15310767]
Baker, S.J.; Fearon, E.R.; Nigro, J.M.; Hamilton, S.R.; Preisinger, A.C.; Jessup, J.M.; vanTuinen, P.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Barker, D.F.; Nakamura, Y.; White, R.; Vogelstein, B. Chromosome 17 deletions and p53 gene mutations in colorectal carcinomas. Science, 1989, 244(4901), 217-221.
[] [PMID: 2649981]
Eckhart, W.; Hutchinson, M.A.; Hunter, T. An activity phosphorylating tyrosine in polyoma T antigen immunoprecipitates. Cell, 1979, 18(4), 925-933.
[] [PMID: 229973]
Hunter, T.; Sefton, B.M. Transforming gene product of Rous sarcoma virus phosphorylates tyrosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1980, 77(3), 1311-1315.
[] [PMID: 6246487]
Whyte, P.; Buchkovich, K.J.; Horowitz, J.M.; Friend, S.H.; Raybuck, M.; Weinberg, R.A.; Harlow, E. Association between an oncogene and an anti-oncogene: the adenovirus E1A proteins bind to the retinoblastoma gene product. Nature, 1988, 334(6178), 124-129.
[] [PMID: 2968522]
Nigro, J.M.; Baker, S.J.; Preisinger, A.C.; Jessup, J.M.; Hostetter, R.; Cleary, K.; Bigner, S.H.; Davidson, N.; Baylin, S.; Devilee, P. Mutations in the p53 gene occur in diverse human tumour types. Nature, 1989, 342(6250), 705-708.
[] [PMID: 2531845]
Fearon, E.R.; Vogelstein, B. A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell, 1990, 61(5), 759-767.
[] [PMID: 2188735]
Weinert, T.A.; Hartwell, L.H. The RAD9 gene controls the cell cycle response to DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science, 1988, 241(4863), 317-322.
[] [PMID: 3291120]
Berget, S.M.; Moore, C.; Sharp, P.A. Spliced segments at the 5′ terminus of adenovirus 2 late mRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1977, 74(8), 3171-3175.
[] [PMID: 269380]
Chow, L.T.; Gelinas, R.E.; Broker, T.R.; Roberts, R.J. An amazing sequence arrangement at the 5′ ends of adenovirus 2 messenger RNA. Cell, 1977, 12(1), 1-8.
[] [PMID: 902310]
Robertson, K.D.; Jones, P.A. Tissue-specific alternative splicing in the human INK4a/ARF cell cycle regulatory locus. Oncogene, 1999, 18(26), 3810-3820.
[] [PMID: 10445844]
Loeb, L.A.; Springgate, C.F.; Battula, N. Errors in DNA replication as a basis of malignant changes. Cancer Res., 1974, 34(9), 2311-2321.
[PMID: 4136142]
He, L.; Thomson, J.M.; Hemann, M.T.; Hernando-Monge, E.; Mu, D.; Goodson, S.; Powers, S.; Cordon-Cardo, C.; Lowe, S.W.; Hannon, G.J.; Hammond, S.M. A microRNA polycistron as a potential human oncogene. Nature, 2005, 435(7043), 828-833.
[] [PMID: 15944707]
Lu, J.; Getz, G.; Miska, E.A.; Alvarez-Saavedra, E.; Lamb, J.; Peck, D.; Sweet-Cordero, A.; Ebert, B.L.; Mak, R.H.; Ferrando, A.A.; Downing, J.R.; Jacks, T.; Horvitz, H.R.; Golub, T.R. MicroRNA expression profiles classify human cancers. Nature, 2005, 435(7043), 834-838.
[] [PMID: 15944708]
Iorio, M.V.; Ferracin, M.; Liu, C.G.; Veronese, A.; Spizzo, R.; Sabbioni, S.; Magri, E.; Pedriali, M.; Fabbri, M.; Campiglio, M.; Ménard, S.; Palazzo, J.P.; Rosenberg, A.; Musiani, P.; Volinia, S.; Nenci, I.; Calin, G.A.; Querzoli, P.; Negrini, M.; Croce, C.M. MicroRNA gene expression deregulation in human breast cancer. Cancer Res., 2005, 65(16), 7065-7070.
[] [PMID: 16103053]
Ellermann, V.; Bang, O. Experimentelle Leukamie bei Huhnern. Vorlaufige Mitteilung Centralbl f. Bakteriol., 1908, 46, 4-5.
Lathrop, A.E.; Loeb, L. Further investigations on the origin of tumors in mice. III. On the part played by internal secretion in the spontaneous development of tumors. J. Cancer Res., 1916, 1(1), 1-19.
[PMID: 12264098]
Loeb, L. Ovarian secretion and tumor incidence. Science, 1928, 67(1746), 605-607.
[] [PMID: 17792501]
Weinhouse, S. On respiratory impairment in cancer cells. Science, 1956, 124(3215), 267-269.
[] [PMID: 13351638]
Warburg, O.; Posener, K.; Negelein, E. Uber den Stoffwechsel von Tumoren. Biochem. Z., 1924, 152, 319-344.
Bauer, K.H. Mutationstheorie der Geschwulstentstehung; Berlin: Springer, 1928.
Tyzzer, E. Tumor immunology. J. Cancer Res., 1916, (1), 125-1255.
[[doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2013.02.012]
Papanicolaou, G. New cancer diagnosis. Proceedings of the Third Race Betterment Conference, Battle Creek, Michigan1928, pp. 528-534.
[PMID: 4196138]
Papanicolaou, G.N. A survey of the actualities and potentialities of exfoliative cytology in cancer diagnosis. Ann. Intern. Med., 1949, 31(4), 661-674.
[] [PMID: 15392502]
Muller, H.J. The production of mutations by x-rays. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1928, 14(9), 714-726.
[] [PMID: 16587397]
Kennaway, E.L.; Hieger, I. Carcinogenic substances and their fluorescence spectra. Br. Med. J., 1930, 1(3622), 1044-1046.
[] [PMID: 20775497]
Kennaway, E.L. Further experiments on cancer-producing substances. Biochem. J., 1930, 24(2), 497-504.
[] [PMID: 16744388]
Muller, H. The remaking of chromosomes. Collecting Net-Woods Hole, 1938, 13, 181-198.
McClintock, B. The stability of broken ends of chromosomes in zea mays. Genetics, 1941, 26(2), 234-282.
[PMID: 17247004]
Blackburn, E.H.; Gall, J.G. A tandemly repeated sequence at the termini of the extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena. J. Mol. Biol., 1978, 120(1), 33-53.
[] [PMID: 642006]
Hakin-Smith, V.; Jellinek, D.A.; Levy, D.; Carroll, T.; Teo, M.; Timperley, W.R.; McKay, M.J.; Reddel, R.R.; Royds, J.A. Alternative lengthening of telomeres and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Lancet, 2003, 361(9360), 836-838.
[] [PMID: 12642053]
Ulaner, G.A.; Huang, H.Y.; Otero, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ben-Porat, L.; Satagopan, J.M.; Gorlick, R.; Meyers, P.; Healey, J.H.; Huvos, A.G.; Hoffman, A.R.; Ladanyi, M. Absence of a telomere maintenance mechanism as a favorable prognostic factor in patients with osteosarcoma. Cancer Res., 2003, 63(8), 1759-1763.
[PMID: 12702558]
Ide, A.; Baker, N.H.; Warren, S.L. Vascularization of the brown Pearce rabbit epithelioma transplant as seen in the transparent ear chamber. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol., 1939, (42), 891-899.
Tannenbaum, A.; Silverstone, H. The influence of the degree of caloric restriction on the formation of skin tumors and hepatomas in mice. Cancer Res., 1949, 9(12), 724-727.
[PMID: 15395906]
Folkman, J.; Merler, E.; Abernathy, C.; Williams, G. Isolation of a tumor factor responsible for angiogenesis. J. Exp. Med., 1971, 133(2), 275-288.
[] [PMID: 4332371]
Avery, O.T.; Macleod, C.M.; McCarty, M. Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types: Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type Iii. J. Exp. Med., 1944, 79(2), 137-158.
[] [PMID: 19871359]
Goodman, L.S.; Wintrobe, M.M. Nitrogen mustard therapy; use of methyl-bis (beta-chloroethyl) amine hydrochloride and tris (beta-chloroethyl) amine hydrochloride for Hodgkin’s disease, lymphosarcoma, leukemia and certain allied and miscellaneous disorders. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1946, 132, 126-132.
[] [PMID: 20997191]
Farber, S.; Diamond, L.K. Temporary remissions in acute leukemia in children produced by folic acid antagonist, 4-aminopteroyl-glutamic acid. N. Engl. J. Med., 1948, 238(23), 787-793.
[] [PMID: 18860765]
Hitchings, G.H.; Elion, G.B.; Falco, E.A. Antagonists of nucleic acid derivatives. II. Reversal studies with substances structurally related to thymine. J. Biol. Chem., 1950, 185(2), 643-649.
[PMID: 14774407]
Heidelberger, C.; Chaudhuri, N.K.; Danneberg, P.; Mooren, D.; Griesbach, L.; Duschinsky, R.; Schnitzer, R.J.; Pleven, E.; Scheiner, J. Fluorinated pyrimidines, a new class of tumour-inhibitory compounds. Nature, 1957, 179(4561), 663-666.
[] [PMID: 13418758]
Giavina-Bianchi, P.; Patil, S.U.; Banerji, A. Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Chemotherapeutic Agents. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. Pract., 2017, 5(3), 593-599.
[] [PMID: 28483313]
Johns, H.E.; Bates, L.M.; Epp, E.R.; Cormack, D.V.; Fedorux, S.O.; Morrison, A.; Dixon, W.R.; Garrett, C. 1,000-curie cobalt 60 units for radiation therapy. Nature, 1951, 168(4285), 1035-1036.
[] [PMID: 14910632]
Gross, L. “Spontaneous” leukemia developing in C3H mice following inoculation in infancy, with AK-leukemic extracts, or AK-embrvos. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 1951, 76(1), 27-32.
[] [PMID: 14816382]
Gross, L. The “vertical” transmission of mouse mammary carcinoma and chicken leukemia; its possible implications for human pathology. Cancer, 1951, 4(3), 626-633.
[<626:AID-CNCR2820040314>3.0.CO;2-1] [PMID: 14839617]
Eddy, B.E.; Stewart, S.E.; Berkeley, W. Cytopathogenicity in tissue culture by a tumor virus from mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 1958, 98(4), 848-851.
[] [PMID: 13591363]
Watson, J.D.; Crick, F.H. Molecular structure of nucleic acids; A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature, 1953, 171(4356), 737-738.
[] [PMID: 13054692]
Scherer, W.F.; Syverton, J.T.; Gey, G.O. Studies on the propagation in vitro of poliomyelitis viruses. IV. Viral multiplication in a stable strain of human malignant epithelial cells (strain HeLa) derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix. J. Exp. Med., 1953, 97(5), 695-710.
[] [PMID: 13052828]
Hertz, R.; Li, M.C.; Spencer, D.B. Effect of methotrexate therapy upon choriocarcinoma and chorioadenoma. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 1956, 93(2), 361-366.
[] [PMID: 13379512]
Elkind, M.M.; Sutton, H. X-ray damage and recovery in mammalian cells in culture. Nature, 1959, 184, 1293-1295.
[] [PMID: 13819951]
Yalow, R.S.; Berson, S.A. Assay of plasma insulin in human subjects by immunological methods. Nature, 1959, 184(Suppl. 21), 1648-1649.
[] [PMID: 13846363]
Abelev, G.I.; Perova, S.D.; Khramkova, N.I.; Postnikova, Z.A.; Irlin, I.S. Production of embryonal alpha-globulin by transplantable mouse hepatomas. Transplantation, 1963, 174-180.
[[DOI: 10.1097/00007890-196301020-00004]
Gold, P.; Freedman, S.O. Specific carcinoembryonic antigens of the human digestive system. J. Exp. Med., 1965, 122(3), 467-481.
[] [PMID: 4953873]
Copier, J.; Whelan, M.; Dalgleish, A. Biomarkers for the development of cancer vaccines: current status. Mol. Diagn. Ther., 2006, 10(6), 337-343.
[] [PMID: 17154650]
Perona, R. Cell signalling: growth factors and tyrosine kinase receptors. Clin. Transl. Oncol., 2006, 8(2), 77-82.
[] [PMID: 16632420]
Nakao, M.; Yokota, S.; Iwai, T.; Kaneko, H.; Horiike, S.; Kashima, K.; Sonoda, Y.; Fujimoto, T.; Misawa, S. Internal tandem duplication of the flt3 gene found in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia, 1996, 10(12), 1911-1918.
[PMID: 8946930]
Lynch, T.J.; Bell, D.W.; Sordella, R.; Gurubhagavatula, S.; Okimoto, R.A.; Brannigan, B.W.; Harris, P.L.; Haserlat, S.M.; Supko, J.G.; Haluska, F.G.; Louis, D.N.; Christiani, D.C.; Settleman, J.; Haber, D.A. Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib. N. Engl. J. Med., 2004, 350(21), 2129-2139.
[] [PMID: 15118073]
Pao, W.; Miller, V.; Zakowski, M.; Doherty, J.; Politi, K.; Sarkaria, I.; Singh, B.; Heelan, R.; Rusch, V.; Fulton, L.; Mardis, E.; Kupfer, D.; Wilson, R.; Kris, M.; Varmus, H. EGF receptor gene mutations are common in lung cancers from “never smokers” and are associated with sensitivity of tumors to gefitinib and erlotinib. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2004, 101(36), 13306-13311.
[] [PMID: 15329413]
Sordella, R.; Bell, D.W.; Haber, D.A.; Settleman, J. Gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutations in lung cancer activate anti-apoptotic pathways. Science, 2004, 305(5687), 1163-1167.
[] [PMID: 15284455]
Gambacorti-Passerini, C.; Antolini, L.; Mahon, F.X.; Guilhot, F.; Deininger, M.; Fava, C.; Nagler, A.; Della Casa, C.M.; Morra, E.; Abruzzese, E.; D’Emilio, A.; Stagno, F.; le Coutre, P.; Hurtado-Monroy, R.; Santini, V.; Martino, B.; Pane, F.; Piccin, A.; Giraldo, P.; Assouline, S.; Durosinmi, M.A.; Leeksma, O.; Pogliani, E.M.; Puttini, M.; Jang, E.; Reiffers, J.; Piazza, R.; Valsecchi, M.G.; Kim, D.W. Multicenter independent assessment of outcomes in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2011, 103(7), 553-561.
[] [PMID: 21422402]
O’Brien, S.G.; Guilhot, F.; Larson, R.A.; Gathmann, I.; Baccarani, M.; Cervantes, F.; Cornelissen, J.J.; Fischer, T.; Hochhaus, A.; Hughes, T.; Lechner, K.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rousselot, P.; Reiffers, J.; Saglio, G.; Shepherd, J.; Simonsson, B.; Gratwohl, A.; Goldman, J.M.; Kantarjian, H.; Taylor, K.; Verhoef, G.; Bolton, A.E.; Capdeville, R.; Druker, B.J. IRIS Investigators. Imatinib compared with interferon and low-dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed chronic-phase myeloid leukemia. N. Engl. J. Med., 2003, 348(11), 994-1004.
[] [PMID: 12637609]
Steinberg, M. Dasatinib: A tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin. Ther., 2007, 29(11), 2289-2308.
[] [PMID: 18158072]
Deininger, M.W. Nilotinib. Clin. Cancer Res., 2008, 14(13), 4027-4031.
[] [PMID: 18593977]
Remsing Rix, L.L.; Rix, U.; Colinge, J.; Hantschel, O.; Bennett, K.L.; Stranzl, T.; Müller, A.; Baumgartner, C.; Valent, P.; Augustin, M.; Till, J.H.; Superti-Furga, G. Global target profile of the kinase inhibitor bosutinib in primary chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Leukemia, 2009, 23(3), 477-485.
[] [PMID: 19039322]
Krause, D.S.; Van Etten, R.A. Tyrosine kinases as targets for cancer therapy. N. Engl. J. Med., 2005, 353(2), 172-187.
[] [PMID: 16014887]
Gupta, A.K.; Bhunia, S.S.; Balaramnavar, V.M.; Saxena, A.K. Pharmacophore modelling, molecular docking and virtual screening for EGFR (HER 1) tyrosine kinase inhibitors. SAR QSAR Environ. Res., 2011, 22(3), 239-263.
[] [PMID: 21400356]
Nirenberg, M.W.; Matthaei, J.H. The dependence of cell-free protein synthesis in E. coli upon naturally occurring or synthetic polyribonucleotides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1961, 47, 1588-1602.
[] [PMID: 14479932]
Burkitt, D. Determining the climatic limitations of a children’s cancer common in Africa. Br. Med. J., 1962, 2(5311), 1019-1023.
[] [PMID: 14017064]
Oettgen, H.F.; Burkitt, D.; Burchenal, J.H. Malignant lymphoma involving the jaw in African children: treatment with Methotrexate. Cancer, 1963, 16, 616-623.
[<616:AID-CNCR2820160512>3.0.CO;2-U] [PMID: 13939518]
Jensen, E.V.; Desombre, E.R.; Hurst, D.J.; Kawashima, T.; Jungblut, P.W. Estrogen-receptor interactions in target tissues. Arch. Anat. Microsc. Morphol. Exp., 1967, 56(3), 547-569.
[PMID: 5615176]
Jensen, E.V.; Suzuki, T.; Kawashima, T.; Stumpf, W.E.; Jungblut, P.W.; DeSombre, E.R. A two-step mechanism for the interaction of estradiol with rat uterus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1968, 59(2), 632-638.
[] [PMID: 5238991]
Hussain, M.K.; Ansari, M.I.; Yadav, N.; Gupta, P.K.; Gupta, A.K.; Saxena, R.; Fatima, I.; Manohar, M.; Kushwaha, P.; Khedgikar, V.; Gautam, J.; Kant, R.; Maulik, P.R.; Trivedi, R.; Dwivedi, A.; Ravi Kumar, K.; Saxena, A.K.; Hajela, K. Design and synthesis of ERα/ERβ selective coumarin and chromene derivatives as potential anti-breast cancer and anti-osteoporotic agents. RSC Adv, 2014, 4, 8828-8845.
[[DOI: 10.1039/C3RA45749D]
Paget, S. The distribution of secondary growths in cancer of the breast. 1889. Cancer Metastasis Rev., 1989, 8(2), 98-101.
[PMID: 2673568]
Hanahan, D.; Weinberg, R.A. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell, 2000, 100(1), 57-70.
[] [PMID: 10647931]
Joyce, J.A.; Fearon, D.T. T cell exclusion, immune privilege, and the tumor microenvironment. Science, 2015, 348(6230), 74-80.
[] [PMID: 25838376]
Witz, I.P.; Levy-Nissenbaum, O. The tumor microenvironment in the post-PAGET era. Cancer Lett., 2006, 242(1), 1-10.
[] [PMID: 16413116]
McCarthy, M.J.; Pagba, C.V.; Prakash, P.; Naji, A.K.; van der Hoeven, D.; Liang, H.; Gupta, A.K.; Zhou, Y.; Cho, K.J.; Hancock, J.F.; Gorfe, A.A. Discovery of high-affinity noncovalent allosteric kras inhibitors that disrupt effector binding. ACS Omega, 2019, 4(2), 2921-2930.
[] [PMID: 30842983]
Belli, C.; Trapani, D.; Viale, G.; D’Amico, P.; Duso, B.A.; Della Vigna, P.; Orsi, F.; Curigliano, G. Targeting the microenvironment in solid tumors. Cancer Treat. Rev., 2018, 65, 22-32.
[] [PMID: 29502037]
Li, F.P.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr. Rhabdomyosarcoma in children: epidemiologic study and identification of a familial cancer syndrome. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1969, 43(6), 1365-1373.
[PMID: 5396222]
Biedler, J.L.; Riehm, H. Cellular resistance to actinomycin D in Chinese hamster cells in vitro: Cross-resistance, radioautographic, and cytogenetic studies. Cancer Res., 1970, 30(4), 1174-1184.
[PMID: 5533992]
Juliano, R.L.; Ling, V. A surface glycoprotein modulating drug permeability in Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1976, 455(1), 152-162.
[] [PMID: 990323]
Fojo, T.; Bates, S. Strategies for reversing drug resistance. Oncogene, 2003, 22(47), 7512-7523.
[] [PMID: 14576855]
Fox, E.; Bates, S.E. Tariquidar (XR9576): A P-glycoprotein drug efflux pump inhibitor. Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther., 2007, 7(4), 447-459.
[] [PMID: 17428165]
Baltimore, D.; Huang, A.S.; Stampfer, M. Ribonucleic acid synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus, II. An RNA polymerase in the virion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1970, 66(2), 572-576.
[] [PMID: 4317920]
Temin, H.M.; Mizutani, S. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus. Nature, 1970, 226(5252), 1211-1213.
[] [PMID: 4316301]
Sinibaldi-Vallebona, P.; Lavia, P.; Garaci, E.; Spadafora, C. A role for endogenous reverse transcriptase in tumorigenesis and as a target in differentiating cancer therapy. Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 2006, 45(1), 1-10.
[] [PMID: 16175572]
Liu, W.; Song, X.L.; Zhao, S.C.; He, M.; Wang, H.; Chen, Z.; Xiang, W.; Yi, G.; Qi, S.; Liu, Y. Antitumor activity and mechanism of a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, dapivirine, in glioblastoma. J. Cancer, 2018, 9(1), 117-128.
[] [PMID: 29290776]
Rao, P.N.; Johnson, R.T. Mammalian cell fusion: Studies on the regulation of DNA synthesis and mitosis. Nature, 1970, 225(5228), 159-164.
[] [PMID: 5409962]
Hartwell, L.H.; Culotti, J.; Reid, B. Genetic control of the cell-division cycle in yeast. I. Detection of mutants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1970, 66(2), 352-359.
[] [PMID: 5271168]
Hartwell, L.H. Genetic control of the cell division cycle in yeast. II. Genes controlling DNA replication and its initiation. J. Mol. Biol., 1971, 59(1), 183-194.
[] [PMID: 5283752]
Beach, D.; Durkacz, B.; Nurse, P. Functionally homologous cell cycle control genes in budding and fission yeast. Nature, 1982, 300(5894), 706-709.
[] [PMID: 6757758]
Lee, M.G.; Nurse, P. Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2. Nature, 1987, 327(6117), 31-35.
[] [PMID: 3553962]
Hartwell, L.H.; Weinert, T.A. Checkpoints: Controls that ensure the order of cell cycle events. Science, 1989, 246(4930), 629-634.
[] [PMID: 2683079]
Shapiro, G.I.; Harper, J.W. Anticancer drug targets: Cell cycle and checkpoint control. J. Clin. Invest., 1999, 104(12), 1645-1653.
[] [PMID: 10606615]
Sherr, C.J. Cancer cell cycles. Science, 1996, 274(5293), 1672-1677.
[] [PMID: 8939849]
McDonald, E.R., III; El-Deiry, W.S. Cell cycle control as a basis for cancer drug development.[Review] Int. J. Oncol., 2000, 16(5), 871-886.
[] [PMID: 10762622]
Vermeulen, K.; Van Bockstaele, D.R.; Berneman, Z.N. The cell cycle: A review of regulation, deregulation and therapeutic targets in cancer. Cell Prolif., 2003, 36(3), 131-149.
[] [PMID: 12814430]
Knudson, A.G. Jr. Mutation and cancer: statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1971, 68(4), 820-823.
[] [PMID: 5279523]
Cavenee, W.K.; Dryja, T.P.; Phillips, R.A.; Benedict, W.F.; Godbout, R.; Gallie, B.L.; Murphree, A.L.; Strong, L.C.; White, R.L. Expression of recessive alleles by chromosomal mechanisms in retinoblastoma. Nature, 1983, 305(5937), 779-784.
[] [PMID: 6633649]
Cavenee, W.K.; Hansen, M.F.; Nordenskjold, M.; Kock, E.; Maumenee, I.; Squire, J.A.; Phillips, R.A.; Gallie, B.L. Genetic origin of mutations predisposing to retinoblastoma. Science, 1985, 228(4698), 501-503.
[] [PMID: 3983638]
Thomas, E.D.; Epstein, R.B. Bone marrow transplantation in acute leukemia. Cancer Res., 1965, 25(9), 1521-1524.
[PMID: 4955705]
Thomas, E.D.; Bryant, J.I.; Buckner, C.D.; Clift, R.A.; Fefer, A.; Johnson, F.L.; Neiman, P.; Ramberg, R.E.; Storb, R. Leukaemic transformation of engrafted human marrow cells in vivo. Lancet, 1972, 1(7764), 1310-1313.
[] [PMID: 4113402]
Kerr, J.F.; Wyllie, A.H.; Currie, A.R. Apoptosis: A basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br. J. Cancer, 1972, 26(4), 239-257.
[] [PMID: 4561027]
Melo, J.V.; Gordon, D.E.; Cross, N.C.; Goldman, J.M. The ABL-BCR fusion gene is expressed in chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood, 1993, 81(1), 158-165.
[PMID: 8417787]
Li, W.J.; Dreazen, O.; Kloetzer, W.; Gale, R.P.; Arlinghaus, R.B. Characterization of bcr gene products in hematopoietic cells. Oncogene, 1989, 4(2), 127-138.
[PMID: 2648252]
Druker, B.J.; Tamura, S.; Buchdunger, E.; Ohno, S.; Segal, G.M.; Fanning, S.; Zimmermann, J.; Lydon, N.B. Effects of a selective inhibitor of the Abl tyrosine kinase on the growth of Bcr-Abl positive cells. Nat. Med., 1996, 2(5), 561-566.
[] [PMID: 8616716]
Cohen, S.N.; Chang, A.C. A method for selective cloning of eukaryotic DNA fragments in Escherichia coli by repeated transformation. Mol. Gen. Genet., 1974, 134(2), 133-141.
[] [PMID: 4617159]
Morrow, J.F.; Cohen, S.N.; Chang, A.C.; Boyer, H.W.; Goodman, H.M.; Helling, R.B. Replication and transcription of eukaryotic DNA in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1974, 71(5), 1743-1747.
[] [PMID: 4600264]
Sanger, F.; Nicklen, S.; Coulson, A.R. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1977, 74(12), 5463-5467.
[] [PMID: 271968]
Maxam, A.M.; Gilbert, W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol., 1980, 65(1), 499-560.
[] [PMID: 6246368]
Köhler, G.; Milstein, C. Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature, 1975, 256(5517), 495-497.
[] [PMID: 1172191]
Baselga, J. Phase I and II clinical trials of trastuzumab. Ann. Oncol., 2001, 12(Suppl. 1), S49-S55.
[] [PMID: 11521722]
Stehelin, D.; Varmus, H.E.; Bishop, J.M.; Vogt, P.K. DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA. Nature, 1976, 260(5547), 170-173.
[] [PMID: 176594]
Spector, D.H.; Varmus, H.E.; Bishop, J.M. Nucleotide sequences related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus are present in DNA of uninfected vertebrates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1978, 75(9), 4102-4106.
[] [PMID: 212733]
Jordan, V.C. Effects of tamoxifen in relation to breast cancer. Br. Med. J., 1977, 1(6075), 1534-1535.
[] [PMID: 871651]
Fidler, I.J.; Kripke, M.L. Metastasis results from preexisting variant cells within a malignant tumor. Science, 1977, 197(4306), 893-895.
[] [PMID: 887927]
Hecht, S.S.; Chen, C.B.; Hirota, N.; Ornaf, R.M.; Tso, T.C.; Hoffmann, D. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines: Formation from nicotine in vitro and during tobacco curing and carcinogenicity in strain A mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1978, 60(4), 819-824.
[] [PMID: 633391]
Rüdiger, H.W.; Marxen, J.; Kohl, F.V.; Melderis, H.; von Wichert, P. Metabolism and formation of DNA adducts of benzo(a)pyrene in human diploid fibroblasts. Cancer Res., 1979, 39(3), 1083-1088.
[PMID: 427749]
Perera, F.P.; Weinstein, I.B. Molecular epidemiology and carcinogen-DNA adduct detection: new approaches to studies of human cancer causation. J. Chronic Dis., 1982, 35(7), 581-600.
[] [PMID: 6282919]
Kastan, M.B.; Gowans, B.J.; Lieberman, M.W. Methylation of deoxycytidine incorporated by excision-repair synthesis of DNA. Cell, 1982, 30(2), 509-516.
[] [PMID: 7139710]
Ames, B.N. Measuring oxidative damage in humans: relation to cancer and ageing. In: IARC Sci. Publ; , 1988; pp. (89)407-416.
[PMID: 3198229]
Liotta, L.A.; Tryggvason, K.; Garbisa, S.; Hart, I.; Foltz, C.M.; Shafie, S. Metastatic potential correlates with enzymatic degradation of basement membrane collagen. Nature, 1980, 284(5751), 67-68.
[] [PMID: 6243750]
Kuriyama, M.; Wang, M.C.; Papsidero, L.D.; Killian, C.S.; Shimano, T.; Valenzuela, L.; Nishiura, T.; Murphy, G.P.; Chu, T.M. Quantitation of prostate-specific antigen in serum by a sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Cancer Res., 1980, 40(12), 4658-4662.
[PMID: 6159971]
Jones, P.A.; Taylor, S.M. Cellular differentiation, cytidine analogs and DNA methylation. Cell, 1980, 20(1), 85-93.
[] [PMID: 6156004]
Feinberg, A.P.; Vogelstein, B. Hypomethylation distinguishes genes of some human cancers from their normal counterparts. Nature, 1983, 301(5895), 89-92.
[] [PMID: 6185846]
Baylin, S.B.; Höppener, J.W.; de Bustros, A.; Steenbergh, P.H.; Lips, C.J.; Nelkin, B.D. DNA methylation patterns of the calcitonin gene in human lung cancers and lymphomas. Cancer Res., 1986, 46(6), 2917-2922.
[PMID: 3009002]
Baylin, S.B.; Herman, J.G. DNA hypermethylation in tumorigenesis: Epigenetics joins genetics. Trends Genet., 2000, 16(4), 168-174.
[] [PMID: 10729832]
Issa, J.P.; Kantarjian, H.M. Targeting DNA methylation. Clin. Cancer Res., 2009, 15(12), 3938-3946.
[] [PMID: 19509174]
Issa, J.P. DNA methylation as a therapeutic target in cancer. Clin. Cancer Res., 2007, 13(6), 1634-1637.
[] [PMID: 17363514]
LeBien, T.W.; McKenna, R.W.; Abramson, C.S.; Gajl-Peczalska, K.J.; Nesbit, M.E.; Coccia, P.F.; Bloomfield, C.D.; Brunning, R.D.; Kersey, J.H. Use of monoclonal antibodies, morphology, and cytochemistry to probe the cellular heterogeneity of acute leukemia and lymphoma. Cancer Res., 1981, 41(11 Pt 2), 4776-4780.
[PMID: 6945905]
Foon, K.A.; Todd, R.F., III Immunologic classification of leukemia and lymphoma. Blood, 1986, 68(1), 1-31.
[PMID: 2941082]
Goldstein, G.; Scheid, M.; Hammerling, U.; Schlesinger, D.H.; Niall, H.D.; Boyse, E.A. Isolation of a polypeptide that has lymphocyte-differentiating properties and is probably represented universally in living cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1975, 72(1), 11-15.
[] [PMID: 1078892]
Ciechanover, A.; Heller, H.; Katz-Etzion, R.; Hershko, A. Activation of the heat-stable polypeptide of the ATP-dependent proteolytic system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1981, 78(2), 761-765.
[] [PMID: 6262770]
Ciechanover, A.; Elias, S.; Heller, H.; Hershko, A. “Covalent affinity” purification of ubiquitin-activating enzyme. J. Biol. Chem., 1982, 257(5), 2537-2542.
[PMID: 6277904]
Senger, D.R.; Galli, S.J.; Dvorak, A.M.; Perruzzi, C.A.; Harvey, V.S.; Dvorak, H.F. Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid. Science, 1983, 219(4587), 983-985.
[] [PMID: 6823562]
Leung, D.W.; Cachianes, G.; Kuang, W.J.; Goeddel, D.V.; Ferrara, N. Vascular endothelial growth factor is a secreted angiogenic mitogen. Science, 1989, 246(4935), 1306-1309.
[] [PMID: 2479986]
Dürst, M.; Gissmann, L.; Ikenberg, H.; zur Hausen, H. A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1983, 80(12), 3812-3815.
[] [PMID: 6304740]
Ruley, H.E. Adenovirus early region 1A enables viral and cellular transforming genes to transform primary cells in culture. Nature, 1983, 304(5927), 602-606.
[] [PMID: 6308473]
Land, H.; Parada, L.F.; Weinberg, R.A. Tumorigenic conversion of primary embryo fibroblasts requires at least two cooperating oncogenes. Nature, 1983, 304(5927), 596-602.
[] [PMID: 6308472]
Marshall, B.J.; Warren, J.R. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet, 1984, 1(8390), 1311-1315.
[] [PMID: 6145023]
Tsujimoto, Y.; Finger, L.R.; Yunis, J.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M. Cloning of the chromosome breakpoint of neoplastic B cells with the t(14;18) chromosome translocation. Science, 1984, 226(4678), 1097-1099.
[] [PMID: 6093263]
Bakhshi, A.; Jensen, J.P.; Goldman, P.; Wright, J.J.; McBride, O.W.; Epstein, A.L.; Korsmeyer, S.J. Cloning the chromosomal breakpoint of t(14;18) human lymphomas: clustering around JH on chromosome 14 and near a transcriptional unit on 18. Cell, 1985, 41(3), 899-906.
[] [PMID: 3924412]
Cleary, M.L.; Smith, S.D.; Sklar, J. Cloning and structural analysis of cDNAs for bcl-2 and a hybrid bcl-2/immunoglobulin transcript resulting from the t(14;18) translocation. Cell, 1986, 47(1), 19-28.
[] [PMID: 2875799]
Vaux, D.L.; Cory, S.; Adams, J.M. Bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoietic cell survival and cooperates with c-myc to immortalize pre-B cells. Nature, 1988, 335(6189), 440-442.
[] [PMID: 3262202]
McDonnell, T.J.; Deane, N.; Platt, F.M.; Nunez, G.; Jaeger, U.; McKearn, J.P.; Korsmeyer, S.J. bcl-2-immunoglobulin transgenic mice demonstrate extended B cell survival and follicular lymphoproliferation. Cell, 1989, 57(1), 79-88.
[] [PMID: 2649247]
Strasser, A.; Harris, A.W.; Bath, M.L.; Cory, S. Novel primitive lymphoid tumours induced in transgenic mice by cooperation between myc and bcl-2. Nature, 1990, 348(6299), 331-333.
[] [PMID: 2250704]
Greider, C.W.; Blackburn, E.H. Identification of a specific telomere terminal transferase activity in Tetrahymena extracts. Cell, 1985, 43(2 Pt 1), 405-413.
[] [PMID: 3907856]
Friend, S.H.; Bernards, R.; Rogelj, S.; Weinberg, R.A.; Rapaport, J.M.; Albert, D.M.; Dryja, T.P. A human DNA segment with properties of the gene that predisposes to retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Nature, 1986, 323(6089), 643-646.
[] [PMID: 2877398]
Slamon, D.J.; Clark, G.M.; Wong, S.G.; Levin, W.J.; Ullrich, A.; McGuire, W.L. Human breast cancer: Correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the HER-2/neu oncogene. Science, 1987, 235(4785), 177-182.
[] [PMID: 3798106]
Hall, J.M.; Lee, M.K.; Newman, B.; Morrow, J.E.; Anderson, L.A.; Huey, B.; King, M.C. Linkage of early-onset familial breast cancer to chromosome 17q21. Science, 1990, 250(4988), 1684-1689.
[] [PMID: 2270482]
Bressac, B.; Kew, M.; Wands, J.; Ozturk, M. Selective G to T mutations of p53 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma from southern Africa. Nature, 1991, 350(6317), 429-431.
[] [PMID: 1672732]
Hsu, I.C.; Metcalf, R.A.; Sun, T.; Welsh, J.A.; Wang, N.J.; Harris, C.C. Mutational hotspot in the p53 gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Nature, 1991, 350(6317), 427-428.
[] [PMID: 1849234]
Ozturk, M. p53 mutation in hepatocellular carcinoma after aflatoxin exposure. Lancet, 1991, 338(8779), 1356-1359.
[] [PMID: 1682737]
Sell, S.; Pierce, G.B. Maturation arrest of stem cell differentiation is a common pathway for the cellular origin of teratocarcinomas and epithelial cancers. Lab. Invest., 1994, 70(1), 6-22.
[PMID: 8302019]
Fisher, B.; Costantino, J.P.; Wickerham, D.L.; Redmond, C.K.; Kavanah, M.; Cronin, W.M.; Vogel, V.; Robidoux, A.; Dimitrov, N.; Atkins, J.; Daly, M.; Wieand, S.; Tan-Chiu, E.; Ford, L.; Wolmark, N. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1998, 90(18), 1371-1388.
[] [PMID: 9747868]
Maehama, T.; Dixon, J.E. The tumor suppressor, PTEN/MMAC1, dephosphorylates the lipid second messenger, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. J. Biol. Chem., 1998, 273(22), 13375-13378.
[] [PMID: 9593664]
Myers, M.P.; Pass, I.; Batty, I.H.; Van der Kaay, J.; Stolarov, J.P.; Hemmings, B.A.; Wigler, M.H.; Downes, C.P.; Tonks, N.K. The lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is critical for its tumor supressor function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1998, 95(23), 13513-13518.
[] [PMID: 9811831]
Fire, A.; Xu, S.; Montgomery, M.K.; Kostas, S.A.; Driver, S.E.; Mello, C.C. Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature, 1998, 391(6669), 806-811.
[] [PMID: 9486653]
Yuan, T.L.; Cantley, L.C. PI3K pathway alterations in cancer: Variations on a theme. Oncogene, 2008, 27(41), 5497-5510.
[] [PMID: 18794884]
Wong, K.K.; Engelman, J.A.; Cantley, L.C. Targeting the PI3K signaling pathway in cancer. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., 2010, 20(1), 87-90.
[] [PMID: 20006486]
Bartholomeusz, C.; Gonzalez-Angulo, A.M. Targeting the PI3K signaling pathway in cancer therapy. Expert Opin. Ther. Targets, 2012, 16(1), 121-130.
[] [PMID: 22239433]
Takeshige, K.; Baba, M.; Tsuboi, S.; Noda, T.; Ohsumi, Y. Autophagy in yeast demonstrated with proteinase-deficient mutants and conditions for its induction. J. Cell Biol., 1992, 119(2), 301-311.
[] [PMID: 1400575]
De Duve, C.; Pressman, B.C.; Gianetto, R.; Wattiaux, R.; Appelmans, F. Tissue fractionation studies. 6. Intracellular distribution patterns of enzymes in rat-liver tissue. Biochem. J., 1955, 60(4), 604-617.
[] [PMID: 13249955]
Baehrecke, E.H. Autophagy: Dual roles in life and death? Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 2005, 6(6), 505-510.
[] [PMID: 15928714]
Levy, J.M.M.; Towers, C.G.; Thorburn, A. Targeting autophagy in cancer. Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2017, 17(9), 528-542.
[] [PMID: 28751651]
Levy, J.M.; Thorburn, A. Targeting autophagy during cancer therapy to improve clinical outcomes. Pharmacol. Ther., 2011, 131(1), 130-141.
[] [PMID: 21440002]
Shamblott, M.J.; Axelman, J.; Wang, S.; Bugg, E.M.; Littlefield, J.W.; Donovan, P.J.; Blumenthal, P.D.; Huggins, G.R.; Gearhart, J.D. Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1998, 95(23), 13726-13731.
[] [PMID: 9811868]
Thomson, J.A.; Itskovitz-Eldor, J.; Shapiro, S.S.; Waknitz, M.A.; Swiergiel, J.J.; Marshall, V.S.; Jones, J.M. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science, 1998, 282(5391), 1145-1147.
[] [PMID: 9804556]
Pegram, M.D.; Lipton, A.; Hayes, D.F.; Weber, B.L.; Baselga, J.M.; Tripathy, D.; Baly, D.; Baughman, S.A.; Twaddell, T.; Glaspy, J.A.; Slamon, D.J. Phase II study of receptor-enhanced chemosensitivity using recombinant humanized anti-p185HER2/neu monoclonal antibody plus cisplatin in patients with HER2/neu-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer refractory to chemotherapy treatment. J. Clin. Oncol., 1998, 16(8), 2659-2671.
[] [PMID: 9704716]
Slamon, D.J.; Leyland-Jones, B.; Shak, S.; Fuchs, H.; Paton, V.; Bajamonde, A.; Fleming, T.; Eiermann, W.; Wolter, J.; Pegram, M.; Baselga, J.; Norton, L. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 344(11), 783-792.
[] [PMID: 11248153]
Mordasky Markell, L.; Pérez-Lorenzo, R.; Masiuk, K.E.; Kennett, M.J.; Glick, A.B. Use of a TGFbeta type I receptor inhibitor in mouse skin carcinogenesis reveals a dual role for TGFbeta signaling in tumor promotion and progression. Carcinogenesis, 2010, 31(12), 2127-2135.
[] [PMID: 20852150]
Hurwitz, H.; Fehrenbacher, L.; Novotny, W.; Cartwright, T.; Hainsworth, J.; Heim, W.; Berlin, J.; Baron, A.; Griffing, S.; Holmgren, E.; Ferrara, N.; Fyfe, G.; Rogers, B.; Ross, R.; Kabbinavar, F. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2004, 350(23), 2335-2342.
[] [PMID: 15175435]
Harper, D.M.; Franco, E.L.; Wheeler, C.; Ferris, D.G.; Jenkins, D.; Schuind, A.; Zahaf, T.; Innis, B.; Naud, P.; De Carvalho, N.S.; Roteli-Martins, C.M.; Teixeira, J.; Blatter, M.M.; Korn, A.P.; Quint, W.; Dubin, G. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 2004, 364(9447), 1757-1765.
[] [PMID: 15541448]
Villa, L.L.; Costa, R.L.; Petta, C.A.; Andrade, R.P.; Ault, K.A.; Giuliano, A.R.; Wheeler, C.M.; Koutsky, L.A.; Malm, C.; Lehtinen, M.; Skjeldestad, F.E.; Olsson, S.E.; Steinwall, M.; Brown, D.R.; Kurman, R.J.; Ronnett, B.M.; Stoler, M.H.; Ferenczy, A.; Harper, D.M.; Tamms, G.M.; Yu, J.; Lupinacci, L.; Railkar, R.; Taddeo, F.J.; Jansen, K.U.; Esser, M.T.; Sings, H.L.; Saah, A.J.; Barr, E. Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial. Lancet Oncol., 2005, 6(5), 271-278.
[] [PMID: 15863374]
Druker, B.J.; Talpaz, M.; Resta, D.J.; Peng, B.; Buchdunger, E.; Ford, J.M.; Lydon, N.B.; Kantarjian, H.; Capdeville, R.; Ohno-Jones, S.; Sawyers, C.L. Efficacy and safety of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia. N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 344(14), 1031-1037.
[] [PMID: 11287972]
Venter, J.C.; Adams, M.D.; Myers, E.W.; Li, P.W.; Mural, R.J.; Sutton, G.G.; Smith, H.O.; Yandell, M.; Evans, C.A.; Holt, R.A.; Gocayne, J.D.; Amanatides, P.; Ballew, R.M.; Huson, D.H.; Wortman, J.R.; Zhang, Q.; Kodira, C.D.; Zheng, X.H.; Chen, L.; Skupski, M.; Subramanian, G.; Thomas, P.D.; Zhang, J.; Gabor Miklos, G.L.; Nelson, C.; Broder, S.; Clark, A.G.; Nadeau, J.; McKusick, V.A.; Zinder, N.; Levine, A.J.; Roberts, R.J.; Simon, M.; Slayman, C.; Hunkapiller, M.; Bolanos, R.; Delcher, A.; Dew, I.; Fasulo, D.; Flanigan, M.; Florea, L.; Halpern, A.; Hannenhalli, S.; Kravitz, S.; Levy, S.; Mobarry, C.; Reinert, K.; Remington, K.; Abu-Threideh, J.; Beasley, E.; Biddick, K.; Bonazzi, V.; Brandon, R.; Cargill, M.; Chandramouliswaran, I.; Charlab, R.; Chaturvedi, K.; Deng, Z.; Di Francesco, V.; Dunn, P.; Eilbeck, K.; Evangelista, C.; Gabrielian, A.E.; Gan, W.; Ge, W.; Gong, F.; Gu, Z.; Guan, P.; Heiman, T.J.; Higgins, M.E.; Ji, R.R.; Ke, Z.; Ketchum, K.A.; Lai, Z.; Lei, Y.; Li, Z.; Li, J.; Liang, Y.; Lin, X.; Lu, F.; Merkulov, G.V.; Milshina, N.; Moore, H.M.; Naik, A.K.; Narayan, V.A.; Neelam, B.; Nusskern, D.; Rusch, D.B.; Salzberg, S.; Shao, W.; Shue, B.; Sun, J.; Wang, Z.; Wang, A.; Wang, X.; Wang, J.; Wei, M.; Wides, R.; Xiao, C.; Yan, C.; Yao, A.; Ye, J.; Zhan, M.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, F.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, S.; Zhao, S.; Gilbert, D.; Baumhueter, S.; Spier, G.; Carter, C.; Cravchik, A.; Woodage, T.; Ali, F.; An, H.; Awe, A.; Baldwin, D.; Baden, H.; Barnstead, M.; Barrow, I.; Beeson, K.; Busam, D.; Carver, A.; Center, A.; Cheng, M.L.; Curry, L.; Danaher, S.; Davenport, L.; Desilets, R.; Dietz, S.; Dodson, K.; Doup, L.; Ferriera, S.; Garg, N.; Gluecksmann, A.; Hart, B.; Haynes, J.; Haynes, C.; Heiner, C.; Hladun, S.; Hostin, D.; Houck, J.; Howland, T.; Ibegwam, C.; Johnson, J.; Kalush, F.; Kline, L.; Koduru, S.; Love, A.; Mann, F.; May, D.; McCawley, S.; McIntosh, T.; McMullen, I.; Moy, M.; Moy, L.; Murphy, B.; Nelson, K.; Pfannkoch, C.; Pratts, E.; Puri, V.; Qureshi, H.; Reardon, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rogers, Y.H.; Romblad, D.; Ruhfel, B.; Scott, R.; Sitter, C.; Smallwood, M.; Stewart, E.; Strong, R.; Suh, E.; Thomas, R.; Tint, N.N.; Tse, S.; Vech, C.; Wang, G.; Wetter, J.; Williams, S.; Williams, M.; Windsor, S.; Winn-Deen, E.; Wolfe, K.; Zaveri, J.; Zaveri, K.; Abril, J.F.; Guigó, R.; Campbell, M.J.; Sjolander, K.V.; Karlak, B.; Kejariwal, A.; Mi, H.; Lazareva, B.; Hatton, T.; Narechania, A.; Diemer, K.; Muruganujan, A.; Guo, N.; Sato, S.; Bafna, V.; Istrail, S.; Lippert, R.; Schwartz, R.; Walenz, B.; Yooseph, S.; Allen, D.; Basu, A.; Baxendale, J.; Blick, L.; Caminha, M.; Carnes-Stine, J.; Caulk, P.; Chiang, Y.H.; Coyne, M.; Dahlke, C.; Mays, A.; Dombroski, M.; Donnelly, M.; Ely, D.; Esparham, S.; Fosler, C.; Gire, H.; Glanowski, S.; Glasser, K.; Glodek, A.; Gorokhov, M.; Graham, K.; Gropman, B.; Harris, M.; Heil, J.; Henderson, S.; Hoover, J.; Jennings, D.; Jordan, C.; Jordan, J.; Kasha, J.; Kagan, L.; Kraft, C.; Levitsky, A.; Lewis, M.; Liu, X.; Lopez, J.; Ma, D.; Majoros, W.; McDaniel, J.; Murphy, S.; Newman, M.; Nguyen, T.; Nguyen, N.; Nodell, M.; Pan, S.; Peck, J.; Peterson, M.; Rowe, W.; Sanders, R.; Scott, J.; Simpson, M.; Smith, T.; Sprague, A.; Stockwell, T.; Turner, R.; Venter, E.; Wang, M.; Wen, M.; Wu, D.; Wu, M.; Xia, A.; Zandieh, A.; Zhu, X. The sequence of the human genome. Science, 2001, 291(5507), 1304-1351.
[] [PMID: 11181995]
Lander, E.S.; Linton, L.M.; Birren, B.; Nusbaum, C.; Zody, M.C.; Baldwin, J.; Devon, K.; Dewar, K.; Doyle, M.; FitzHugh, W.; Funke, R.; Gage, D.; Harris, K.; Heaford, A.; Howland, J.; Kann, L.; Lehoczky, J.; LeVine, R.; McEwan, P.; McKernan, K.; Meldrim, J.; Mesirov, J.P.; Miranda, C.; Morris, W.; Naylor, J.; Raymond, C.; Rosetti, M.; Santos, R.; Sheridan, A.; Sougnez, C.; Stange-Thomann, Y.; Stojanovic, N.; Subramanian, A.; Wyman, D.; Rogers, J.; Sulston, J.; Ainscough, R.; Beck, S.; Bentley, D.; Burton, J.; Clee, C.; Carter, N.; Coulson, A.; Deadman, R.; Deloukas, P.; Dunham, A.; Dunham, I.; Durbin, R.; French, L.; Grafham, D.; Gregory, S.; Hubbard, T.; Humphray, S.; Hunt, A.; Jones, M.; Lloyd, C.; McMurray, A.; Matthews, L.; Mercer, S.; Milne, S.; Mullikin, J.C.; Mungall, A.; Plumb, R.; Ross, M.; Shownkeen, R.; Sims, S.; Waterston, R.H.; Wilson, R.K.; Hillier, L.W.; McPherson, J.D.; Marra, M.A.; Mardis, E.R.; Fulton, L.A.; Chinwalla, A.T.; Pepin, K.H.; Gish, W.R.; Chissoe, S.L.; Wendl, M.C.; Delehaunty, K.D.; Miner, T.L.; Delehaunty, A.; Kramer, J.B.; Cook, L.L.; Fulton, R.S.; Johnson, D.L.; Minx, P.J.; Clifton, S.W.; Hawkins, T.; Branscomb, E.; Predki, P.; Richardson, P.; Wenning, S.; Slezak, T.; Doggett, N.; Cheng, J.F.; Olsen, A.; Lucas, S.; Elkin, C.; Uberbacher, E.; Frazier, M.; Gibbs, R.A.; Muzny, D.M.; Scherer, S.E.; Bouck, J.B.; Sodergren, E.J.; Worley, K.C.; Rives, C.M.; Gorrell, J.H.; Metzker, M.L.; Naylor, S.L.; Kucherlapati, R.S.; Nelson, D.L.; Weinstock, G.M.; Sakaki, Y.; Fujiyama, A.; Hattori, M.; Yada, T.; Toyoda, A.; Itoh, T.; Kawagoe, C.; Watanabe, H.; Totoki, Y.; Taylor, T.; Weissenbach, J.; Heilig, R.; Saurin, W.; Artiguenave, F.; Brottier, P.; Bruls, T.; Pelletier, E.; Robert, C.; Wincker, P.; Smith, D.R.; Doucette-Stamm, L.; Rubenfield, M.; Weinstock, K.; Lee, H.M.; Dubois, J.; Rosenthal, A.; Platzer, M.; Nyakatura, G.; Taudien, S.; Rump, A.; Yang, H.; Yu, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, G.; Gu, J.; Hood, L.; Rowen, L.; Madan, A.; Qin, S.; Davis, R.W.; Federspiel, N.A.; Abola, A.P.; Proctor, M.J.; Myers, R.M.; Schmutz, J.; Dickson, M.; Grimwood, J.; Cox, D.R.; Olson, M.V.; Kaul, R.; Raymond, C.; Shimizu, N.; Kawasaki, K.; Minoshima, S.; Evans, G.A.; Athanasiou, M.; Schultz, R.; Roe, B.A.; Chen, F.; Pan, H.; Ramser, J.; Lehrach, H.; Reinhardt, R.; McCombie, W.R.; de la Bastide, M.; Dedhia, N.; Blöcker, H.; Hornischer, K.; Nordsiek, G.; Agarwala, R.; Aravind, L.; Bailey, J.A.; Bateman, A.; Batzoglou, S.; Birney, E.; Bork, P.; Brown, D.G.; Burge, C.B.; Cerutti, L.; Chen, H.C.; Church, D.; Clamp, M.; Copley, R.R.; Doerks, T.; Eddy, S.R.; Eichler, E.E.; Furey, T.S.; Galagan, J.; Gilbert, J.G.; Harmon, C.; Hayashizaki, Y.; Haussler, D.; Hermjakob, H.; Hokamp, K.; Jang, W.; Johnson, L.S.; Jones, T.A.; Kasif, S.; Kaspryzk, A.; Kennedy, S.; Kent, W.J.; Kitts, P.; Koonin, E.V.; Korf, I.; Kulp, D.; Lancet, D.; Lowe, T.M.; McLysaght, A.; Mikkelsen, T.; Moran, J.V.; Mulder, N.; Pollara, V.J.; Ponting, C.P.; Schuler, G.; Schultz, J.; Slater, G.; Smit, A.F.; Stupka, E.; Szustakowki, J.; Thierry-Mieg, D.; Thierry-Mieg, J.; Wagner, L.; Wallis, J.; Wheeler, R.; Williams, A.; Wolf, Y.I.; Wolfe, K.H.; Yang, S.P.; Yeh, R.F.; Collins, F.; Guyer, M.S.; Peterson, J.; Felsenfeld, A.; Wetterstrand, K.A.; Patrinos, A.; Morgan, M.J.; de Jong, P.; Catanese, J.J.; Osoegawa, K.; Shizuya, H.; Choi, S.; Chen, Y.J.; Szustakowki, J. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature, 2001, 409(6822), 860-921.
[] [PMID: 11237011]
McMurray, M.A.; Gottschling, D.E. An age-induced switch to a hyper-recombinational state. Science, 2003, 301(5641), 1908-1911.
[] [PMID: 14512629]
Richardson, P.G.; Barlogie, B.; Berenson, J.; Singhal, S.; Jagannath, S.; Irwin, D.; Rajkumar, S.V.; Srkalovic, G.; Alsina, M.; Alexanian, R.; Siegel, D.; Orlowski, R.Z.; Kuter, D.; Limentani, S.A.; Lee, S.; Hideshima, T.; Esseltine, D.L.; Kauffman, M.; Adams, J.; Schenkein, D.P.; Anderson, K.C. A phase 2 study of bortezomib in relapsed, refractory myeloma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2003, 348(26), 2609-2617.
[] [PMID: 12826635]
Adams, J.; Kauffman, M. Development of the proteasome inhibitor Velcade (Bortezomib). Cancer Invest., 2004, 22(2), 304-311.
[] [PMID: 15199612]
Mikkelsen, T.S.; Ku, M.; Jaffe, D.B.; Issac, B.; Lieberman, E.; Giannoukos, G.; Alvarez, P.; Brockman, W.; Kim, T.K.; Koche, R.P.; Lee, W.; Mendenhall, E.; O’Donovan, A.; Presser, A.; Russ, C.; Xie, X.; Meissner, A.; Wernig, M.; Jaenisch, R.; Nusbaum, C.; Lander, E.S.; Bernstein, B.E. Genome-wide maps of chromatin state in pluripotent and lineage-committed cells. Nature, 2007, 448(7153), 553-560.
[] [PMID: 17603471]
Mikkelsen, T.S.; Hanna, J.; Zhang, X.; Ku, M.; Wernig, M.; Schorderet, P.; Bernstein, B.E.; Jaenisch, R.; Lander, E.S.; Meissner, A. Dissecting direct reprogramming through integrative genomic analysis. Nature, 2008, 454(7200), 49-55.
[] [PMID: 18509334]
Dawson, M.A.; Kouzarides, T. Cancer epigenetics: From mechanism to therapy. Cell, 2012, 150(1), 12-27.
[] [PMID: 22770212]
Kaplan, R.N.; Riba, R.D.; Zacharoulis, S.; Bramley, A.H.; Vincent, L.; Costa, C.; MacDonald, D.D.; Jin, D.K.; Shido, K.; Kerns, S.A.; Zhu, Z.; Hicklin, D.; Wu, Y.; Port, J.L.; Altorki, N.; Port, E.R.; Ruggero, D.; Shmelkov, S.V.; Jensen, K.K.; Rafii, S.; Lyden, D. VEGFR1-positive haematopoietic bone marrow progenitors initiate the pre-metastatic niche. Nature, 2005, 438(7069), 820-827.
[] [PMID: 16341007]
Trachootham, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, H.; Demizu, Y.; Chen, Z.; Pelicano, H.; Chiao, P.J.; Achanta, G.; Arlinghaus, R.B.; Liu, J.; Huang, P. Selective killing of oncogenically transformed cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. Cancer Cell, 2006, 10(3), 241-252.
[] [PMID: 16959615]
Veiseh, M.; Gabikian, P.; Bahrami, S.B.; Veiseh, O.; Zhang, M.; Hackman, R.C.; Ravanpay, A.C.; Stroud, M.R.; Kusuma, Y.; Hansen, S.J.; Kwok, D.; Munoz, N.M.; Sze, R.W.; Grady, W.M.; Greenberg, N.M.; Ellenbogen, R.G.; Olson, J.M. Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin:Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci. Cancer Res., 2007, 67(14), 6882-6888.
[] [PMID: 17638899]
Braumüller, H.; Wieder, T.; Brenner, E.; Aßmann, S.; Hahn, M.; Alkhaled, M.; Schilbach, K.; Essmann, F.; Kneilling, M.; Griessinger, C.; Ranta, F.; Ullrich, S.; Mocikat, R.; Braungart, K.; Mehra, T.; Fehrenbacher, B.; Berdel, J.; Niessner, H.; Meier, F.; van den Broek, M.; Häring, H.U.; Handgretinger, R.; Quintanilla-Martinez, L.; Fend, F.; Pesic, M.; Bauer, J.; Zender, L.; Schaller, M.; Schulze-Osthoff, K.; Röcken, M. T-helper-1-cell cytokines drive cancer into senescence. Nature, 2013, 494(7437), 361-365.
[] [PMID: 23376950]
Soda, M.; Choi, Y.L.; Enomoto, M.; Takada, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Fujiwara, S.; Watanabe, H.; Kurashina, K.; Hatanaka, H.; Bando, M.; Ohno, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Aburatani, H.; Niki, T.; Sohara, Y.; Sugiyama, Y.; Mano, H. Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small-cell lung cancer. Nature, 2007, 448(7153), 561-566.
[] [PMID: 17625570]
Hunder, N.N.; Wallen, H.; Cao, J.; Hendricks, D.W.; Reilly, J.Z.; Rodmyre, R.; Jungbluth, A.; Gnjatic, S.; Thompson, J.A.; Yee, C. Treatment of metastatic melanoma with autologous CD4+ T cells against NY-ESO-1. N. Engl. J. Med., 2008, 358(25), 2698-2703.
[] [PMID: 18565862]
Wong, S.Y.; Seol, A.D.; So, P.L.; Ermilov, A.N.; Bichakjian, C.K.; Epstein, E.H., Jr; Dlugosz, A.A.; Reiter, J.F. Primary cilia can both mediate and suppress Hedgehog pathway-dependent tumorigenesis. Nat. Med., 2009, 15(9), 1055-1061.
[] [PMID: 19701205]
Han, Y.G.; Kim, H.J.; Dlugosz, A.A.; Ellison, D.W.; Gilbertson, R.J.; Alvarez-Buylla, A. Dual and opposing roles of primary cilia in medulloblastoma development. Nat. Med., 2009, 15(9), 1062-1065.
[] [PMID: 19701203]
Amos, C.I.; Wu, X.; Broderick, P.; Gorlov, I.P.; Gu, J.; Eisen, T.; Dong, Q.; Zhang, Q.; Gu, X.; Vijayakrishnan, J.; Sullivan, K.; Matakidou, A.; Wang, Y.; Mills, G.; Doheny, K.; Tsai, Y.Y.; Chen, W.V.; Shete, S.; Spitz, M.R.; Houlston, R.S. Genome-wide association scan of tag SNPs identifies a susceptibility locus for lung cancer at 15q25.1. Nat. Genet., 2008, 40(5), 616-622.
[] [PMID: 18385676]
Ohali, A.; Avigad, S.; Naumov, I.; Goshen, Y.; Ash, S.; Yaniv, I. Different telomere maintenance mechanisms in alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 2008, 47(11), 965-970.
[] [PMID: 18663749]
Lafferty-Whyte, K.; Cairney, C.J.; Will, M.B.; Serakinci, N.; Daidone, M.G.; Zaffaroni, N.; Bilsland, A.; Keith, W.N. A gene expression signature classifying telomerase and ALT immortalization reveals an hTERT regulatory network and suggests a mesenchymal stem cell origin for ALT. Oncogene, 2009, 28(43), 3765-3774.
[] [PMID: 19684619]
Baker, D.J.; Jin, F.; Jeganathan, K.B.; van Deursen, J.M. Whole chromosome instability caused by Bub1 insufficiency drives tumorigenesis through tumor suppressor gene loss of heterozygosity. Cancer Cell, 2009, 16(6), 475-486.
[] [PMID: 19962666]
Huang, H.C.; Shi, J.; Orth, J.D.; Mitchison, T.J. Evidence that mitotic exit is a better cancer therapeutic target than spindle assembly. Cancer Cell, 2009, 16(4), 347-358.
[] [PMID: 19800579]
Choi, Y.L.; Soda, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Ueno, T.; Takashima, J.; Nakajima, T.; Yatabe, Y.; Takeuchi, K.; Hamada, T.; Haruta, H.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kimura, H.; Mitsudomi, T.; Tanio, Y.; Mano, H. EML4-ALK mutations in lung cancer that confer resistance to ALK inhibitors. N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 363(18), 1734-1739.
[] [PMID: 20979473]
Kwak, E.L.; Bang, Y.J.; Camidge, D.R.; Shaw, A.T.; Solomon, B.; Maki, R.G.; Ou, S.H.; Dezube, B.J.; Jänne, P.A.; Costa, D.B.; Varella-Garcia, M.; Kim, W.H.; Lynch, T.J.; Fidias, P.; Stubbs, H.; Engelman, J.A.; Sequist, L.V.; Tan, W.; Gandhi, L.; Mino-Kenudson, M.; Wei, G.C.; Shreeve, S.M.; Ratain, M.J.; Settleman, J.; Christensen, J.G.; Haber, D.A.; Wilner, K.; Salgia, R.; Shapiro, G.I.; Clark, J.W.; Iafrate, A.J. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in non-small-cell lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 363(18), 1693-1703.
[] [PMID: 20979469]
Gerber, D.E.; Minna, J.D. ALK inhibition for non-small cell lung cancer: from discovery to therapy in record time. Cancer Cell, 2010, 18(6), 548-551.
[] [PMID: 21156280]
Schwartz, G.K.; LoRusso, P.M.; Dickson, M.A.; Randolph, S.S.; Shaik, M.N.; Wilner, K.D.; Courtney, R.; O’Dwyer, P.J. Phase I study of PD 0332991, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, administered in 3-week cycles (Schedule 2/1). Br. J. Cancer, 2011, 104(12), 1862-1868.
[] [PMID: 21610706]
Kim, E.S.; Lee, J.J.; Wistuba, I.I. Cotargeting cyclin D1 starts a new chapter in lung cancer prevention and therapy. Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.), 2011, 4(6), 779-782.
[] [PMID: 21636543]
Kim, E.S.; Herbst, R.S.; Wistuba, I.I.; Lee, J.J.; Blumenschein, G.R., Jr; Tsao, A.; Stewart, D.J.; Hicks, M.E.; Erasmus, J., Jr; Gupta, S.; Alden, C.M.; Liu, S.; Tang, X.; Khuri, F.R.; Tran, H.T.; Johnson, B.E.; Heymach, J.V.; Mao, L.; Fossella, F.; Kies, M.S.; Papadimitrakopoulou, V.; Davis, S.E.; Lippman, S.M.; Hong, W.K. The BATTLE trial: personalizing therapy for lung cancer. Cancer Discov., 2011, 1(1), 44-53.
[] [PMID: 22586319]
Dragnev, K.H.; Ma, T.; Cyrus, J.; Galimberti, F.; Memoli, V.; Busch, A.M.; Tsongalis, G.J.; Seltzer, M.; Johnstone, D.; Erkmen, C.P.; Nugent, W.; Rigas, J.R.; Liu, X.; Freemantle, S.J.; Kurie, J.M.; Waxman, S.; Dmitrovsky, E. Bexarotene plus erlotinib suppress lung carcinogenesis independent of KRAS mutations in two clinical trials and transgenic models. Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.), 2011, 4(6), 818-828.
[] [PMID: 21636548]
Curtis, C.; Shah, S.P.; Chin, S.F.; Turashvili, G.; Rueda, O.M.; Dunning, M.J.; Speed, D.; Lynch, A.G.; Samarajiwa, S.; Yuan, Y.; Gräf, S.; Ha, G.; Haffari, G.; Bashashati, A.; Russell, R.; McKinney, S.; Langerød, A.; Green, A.; Provenzano, E.; Wishart, G.; Pinder, S.; Watson, P.; Markowetz, F.; Murphy, L.; Ellis, I.; Purushotham, A.; Børresen-Dale, A.L.; Brenton, J.D.; Tavaré, S.; Caldas, C.; Aparicio, S. The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 breast tumours reveals novel subgroups. Nature, 2012, 486(7403), 346-352.
[] [PMID: 22522925]
Provenzano, P.P.; Cuevas, C.; Chang, A.E.; Goel, V.K.; Von Hoff, D.D.; Hingorani, S.R. Enzymatic targeting of the stroma ablates physical barriers to treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Cell, 2012, 21(3), 418-429.
[] [PMID: 22439937]
Hosono, Y.; Usukura, J.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yanagisawa, K.; Suzuki, M.; Takahashi, T. MYBPH inhibits NM IIA assembly via direct interaction with NMHC IIA and reduces cell motility. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2012, 428(1), 173-178.
[] [PMID: 23068101]
Hosono, Y.; Yamaguchi, T.; Mizutani, E.; Yanagisawa, K.; Arima, C.; Tomida, S.; Shimada, Y.; Hiraoka, M.; Kato, S.; Yokoi, K.; Suzuki, M.; Takahashi, T. MYBPH, A transcriptional target of TTF-1, inhibits ROCK1, and reduces cell motility and metastasis. EMBO J., 2012, 31(2), 481-493.
[] [PMID: 22085929]
Maeda, Y.; Tsuchiya, T.; Hao, H.; Tompkins, D.H.; Xu, Y.; Mucenski, M.L.; Du, L.; Keiser, A.R.; Fukazawa, T.; Naomoto, Y.; Nagayasu, T.; Whitsett, J.A. Kras(G12D) and Nkx2-1 haploinsufficiency induce mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung. J. Clin. Invest., 2012, 122(12), 4388-4400.
[] [PMID: 23143308]
Snyder, E.L.; Watanabe, H.; Magendantz, M.; Hoersch, S.; Chen, T.A.; Wang, D.G.; Crowley, D.; Whittaker, C.A.; Meyerson, M.; Kimura, S.; Jacks, T. Nkx2-1 represses a latent gastric differentiation program in lung adenocarcinoma. Mol. Cell, 2013, 50(2), 185-199.
[] [PMID: 23523371]
Leprivier, G.; Remke, M.; Rotblat, B.; Dubuc, A.; Mateo, A.R.; Kool, M.; Agnihotri, S.; El-Naggar, A.; Yu, B.; Somasekharan, S.P.; Faubert, B.; Bridon, G.; Tognon, C.E.; Mathers, J.; Thomas, R.; Li, A.; Barokas, A.; Kwok, B.; Bowden, M.; Smith, S.; Wu, X.; Korshunov, A.; Hielscher, T.; Northcott, P.A.; Galpin, J.D.; Ahern, C.A.; Wang, Y.; McCabe, M.G.; Collins, V.P.; Jones, R.G.; Pollak, M.; Delattre, O.; Gleave, M.E.; Jan, E.; Pfister, S.M.; Proud, C.G.; Derry, W.B.; Taylor, M.D.; Sorensen, P.H. The eEF2 kinase confers resistance to nutrient deprivation by blocking translation elongation. Cell, 2013, 153(5), 1064-1079.
[] [PMID: 23706743]
Wolchok, J.D.; Hodi, F.S.; Weber, J.S.; Allison, J.P.; Urba, W.J.; Robert, C.; O’Day, S.J.; Hoos, A.; Humphrey, R.; Berman, D.M.; Lonberg, N.; Korman, A.J. Development of ipilimumab: a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of advanced melanoma. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2013, 1291, 1-13.
[] [PMID: 23772560]
Tarhini, A.A. Tremelimumab: A review of development to date in solid tumors. Immunotherapy, 2013, 5(3), 215-229.
[] [PMID: 23444951]
Jinek, M.; Chylinski, K.; Fonfara, I.; Hauer, M.; Doudna, J.A.; Charpentier, E. A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity. Science, 2012, 337(6096), 816-821.
[] [PMID: 22745249]
Shi, J.; Wang, E.; Milazzo, J.P.; Wang, Z.; Kinney, J.B.; Vakoc, C.R. Discovery of cancer drug targets by CRISPR-Cas9 screening of protein domains. Nat. Biotechnol., 2015, 33(6), 661-667.
[] [PMID: 25961408]
CAR T cells: Engineering patients’ immune cells to treat their cancers. 2017. (Available at:
Porter, D.L.; Hwang, W.T.; Frey, N.V.; Lacey, S.F.; Shaw, P.A.; Loren, A.W.; Bagg, A.; Marcucci, K.T.; Shen, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Ambrose, D.; Grupp, S.A.; Chew, A.; Zheng, Z.; Milone, M.C.; Levine, B.L.; Melenhorst, J.J.; June, C.H. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells persist and induce sustained remissions in relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Sci. Transl. Med., 2015, 7(303)303ra139
[] [PMID: 26333935]
Jackson, H.J.; Rafiq, S.; Brentjens, R.J. Driving CAR T-cells forward. Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol., 2016, 13(6), 370-383.
[] [PMID: 27000958]
Perica, K.; Varela, J.C.; Oelke, M.; Schneck, J. Adoptive T cell immunotherapy for cancer. Rambam Maimonides Med. J., 2015, 6(1)e0004
[] [PMID: 25717386]
Nguyen, L.V.; Pellacani, D.; Lefort, S.; Kannan, N.; Osako, T.; Makarem, M.; Cox, C.L.; Kennedy, W.; Beer, P.; Carles, A.; Moksa, M.; Bilenky, M.; Balani, S.; Babovic, S.; Sun, I.; Rosin, M.; Aparicio, S.; Hirst, M.; Eaves, C.J. Barcoding reveals complex clonal dynamics of de novo transformed human mammary cells. Nature, 2015, 528(7581), 267-271.
[] [PMID: 26633636]
Gerlinger, M.; Rowan, A.J.; Horswell, S.; Math, M.; Larkin, J.; Endesfelder, D.; Gronroos, E.; Martinez, P.; Matthews, N.; Stewart, A.; Tarpey, P.; Varela, I.; Phillimore, B.; Begum, S.; McDonald, N.Q.; Butler, A.; Jones, D.; Raine, K.; Latimer, C.; Santos, C.R.; Nohadani, M.; Eklund, A.C.; Spencer-Dene, B.; Clark, G.; Pickering, L.; Stamp, G.; Gore, M.; Szallasi, Z.; Downward, J.; Futreal, P.A.; Swanton, C. Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing. N. Engl. J. Med., 2012, 366(10), 883-892.
[] [PMID: 22397650]
Restifo, N.P.; Smyth, M.J.; Snyder, A. Acquired resistance to immunotherapy and future challenges. Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2016, 16(2), 121-126.
[] [PMID: 26822578]
Pardoll, D.M. The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2012, 12(4), 252-264.
[] [PMID: 22437870]
Verma, M. Cancer control and prevention: Nutrition and epigenetics. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care, 2013, 16(4), 376-384.
[] [PMID: 23676683]

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [1545 - 1562]
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.2174/1568026619666190730093034
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 30