Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia and represents approximately 1.5% to 2.1% of all cancers diagnosed annually worldwide. Iodine refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma (RR-DTC) and advanced/metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma are relatively uncommon yet prognostically significant thyroid cancers. Gene rearrangements resulting in the aberrant activity of tyrosine kinases have been identified as drivers of oncogenesis in a variety of cancers, including thyroid cancer. Many Multi-Kinase Inhibitors (MKIs) which are now FDA-/EMA-approved for thyroid cancer have shown clinical benefit in patients with advanced cancer. Treatment-related toxicities occur frequently with these drugs and can be severe or life-threatening.
Objectives: This review summarizes the role of targeted therapy with MKIs in the management of RR-DTC and advanced/metastatic MTC patients, focusing on side-effect profiles of these drugs, with a presentation of several recent patents published in this field.
Methods: We review the scientific literature about advanced thyroid cancer and we analyze the International Pharmacovigilance database (FAERS, Eudravigilance, and WHO Vigibase) for adverse drug reactions.
Results: This systematic analysis highlights the difference of the safety profile between the recent drugs used in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer and the recent patient discovered to diagnose or to treat the thyroid cancer.
Conclusion: It is essential to investigate the safety profile of the recent anticancer drugs for advanced thyroid cancer to allow health professionals to make the best choice for each patient by evaluating the risk/benefit assessment.