Venoms and Isolated Toxins from Snakes of Medical Impact in the Northeast Argentina: State of the Art. Potential Pharmacological Applications

Author(s): María Emilia Garcia Denegri, Soledad Bustillo, Claudia Carolina Gay, Andrea Van De Velde, Gabriela Gomez, Silvina Echeverría, María Del Carmen Gauna Pereira, Silvana Maruñak, Sandra Nuñez, Fabián Bogado, Matías Sanchez, Gladys Pamela Teibler, Luciano Fusco*, Laura Cristina Ana Leiva*.

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 19 , Issue 22 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Among the ophidians that inhabit the Northeast of Argentina, the genus Bothrops such as B. alternatus and B. diporus species (also known as yararás) and Crotalus durisus terrificus (named cascabel), represent the most studied snake venom for more than thirty years. These two genera of venomous snakes account for the majority of poisonous snake envenomations and therefore, constitute a medical emergency in this region. This review presents a broad description of the compiled knowledge about venomous snakebite: its pathophysiological action, protein composition, isolated toxins, toxin synergism, toxin-antitoxin cross-reaction assays. Properties of some isolated toxins support a potential pharmacological application.

Keywords: Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Crotalus durisus terrificus, Phospholipases A2, Serinoproteases, Metalloproteinases, Serine/thrombin-like proteinases, Crotoxin, Snake venom.

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