Tinospora cordifolia Aqueous Extract Alleviates Cyclophosphamide- Induced Immune Suppression, Toxicity and Systemic Candidiasis in Immunosuppressed Mice: In vivo Study in Comparison to Antifungal Drug Fluconazole

Author(s): Faris Alrumaihi, Khaled S. Allemailem, Ahmad Almatroudi, Mohammed A. Alsahli, Arif Khan, Masood A. Khan*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 20 , Issue 12 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (AETC) against cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and systemic Candida albicans infection in a murine model.

Methods: The protective effect of AETC against cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia was evaluated by quantitative and qualitative analysis of the leukocytes. The immune-stimulating potential of AETC on macrophages was assessed by determining the levels of secreted cytokines. To determine the direct antifungal activity, AETC or fluconazole was administered to C. albicans infected mice. The efficacy of treatment was assessed by determining the survival rate, kidney fungal burden, the organ index and liver inflammation parameters.

Results: Cyclophosphamide administration resulted in substantial depletion of leukocytes, whereas AETC treatment induced the recovery of leukocytes in cyclophosphamide-injected mice. Moreover, AETC treatment of macrophages resulted in enhanced secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β. C. albicans infected mice treated with AETC at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg exhibited 40% and 60% survival rate, whereas the mice treated with fluconazole at a dose of 50 mg/kg showed 20% survival rate. Like survival data, the fungal load was found to be the lowest in the kidney tissues of mice treated with AETC at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Interestingly, mice infected with C. albicans demonstrated improvement in the organ indices and liver functioning after AETC treatment.

Conclusion: These results suggest that AETC may potentially be used to rejuvenate the weakened immune system and eliminate systemic candidiasis in mice.

Keywords: Alternative medicines, Tinospora cordifolia, Candida albicans, immunosuppression, toxicity, AETC.

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Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [1055 - 1063]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1389201019666190722151126
Price: $58

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