Several cardiac biomarkers are being studied to explore their potential in the prognostication of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). However, there are limited studies exploring the relationship between these biomarkers and clinical, laboratory and demographic characteristics.
We sought to characterize Galectin-3, ST-2 and Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), and their association with routine clinical, laboratory and demographic parameters and how these parameters can influence their levels in ACS patients.
A total of 122 patients with ACS were enrolled in the study. The study patients were categorized into two groups namely: STEMI (n=58) and NSTEMI/UA (n=64). Plasma samples were used to determine the level of biomarkers, Galectin-3 and ST-2, and serum samples were used to determine the levels of MMP-9 using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The association between the plasma and serum levels of biomarkers and, demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were determined. Statistical analyses for the study were performed using SPSS 16.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Elderly aged [0.107 (0.012-0.969); p=0.047] patients had higher ST-2. Galectin-3 was higher among female patients [3.693(1.253-10.887); p=0.018] and patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction [2.882 (1.041-7.978); p=0.042]. Patients with lower body mass index [3.385 (1.241-9.231); p=0.017], diabetes [3.650 (1.302-10.237); p=0.014] and high total leukocyte count [2.900 (1.114-7.551; p=0.029] had higher MMP-9 levels.
High Galectin-3, MMP-9, and ST-2 are independently influenced to a certain degree by demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics. However, no single characteristic was found to be commonly associated with all of the three biomarkers.