Background: Nephrotoxicity is a prevalent consequence of cancer treatment using radiotherapy
and chemotherapy or their combination. There are two methods; histological and biochemical, to
assess the kidney damage caused by toxic agents in animal studies. Although these methods are used
for the try-out of renoprotective factors, these methods are invasive and time-consuming, and also, lack
the necessary sensitivity for primary diagnosis. Quantitative renal 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy is a noninvasive,
precise and sensitive radionuclide technique which is used to assess the extent of kidney damage,
so that the extent of injury to the kidney will be indicated by the renal uptake rate of 99mTc-DMSA
in the kidney. In addition, this scintigraphy evaluates the effect of the toxic agents by quantifying the
alterations in the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical.
Conclusion: In this review, the recent findings about the renoprotective agents were evaluated and
screened with respect to the use of 99mTc-DMSA , which is preclinically and clinically used for animal
cases and cancer patients under the treatment by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.