The current review is focussing on different factors that
contribute and directly correlate to the onset and progression of
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). In particular, the susceptibility to
AMD due to genetic and non-genetic factors and the establishment of risk
scores, based on the analysis of different genes to measure the risk of
developing the disease. A correlation with the actual therapeutic landscape
to treat AMD patients from the point of view of pharmacokinetics and
pharmacogenetics is also exposed. Treatments commonly used, as well as
different regimes of administration will be especially important in trying
to classify individuals as “responders” and “non-responders”.
Analysis of different genes correlated with drug response and also the
emerging field of microRNAs (miRNAs) as possible biomarkers for early AMD
detection and response will be also reviewed.
This article aims to provide the reader a review of different publications
correlated with AMD from the molecular and kinetic point of view as well as
its commonly used treatments, major pitfalls and future directions that, to
our knowledge, could be interesting to assess and follow in order to develop
a personalized medicine model for AMD.
Keywords: susceptibility, pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, treatments,
age-related macular degeneration, anti-VEGF
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