Cosmeceuticals: Nanotechnology-Based Strategies for the Delivery of Phytocompounds

Author(s): Carmelo Puglia*, Debora Santonocito.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 25 , Issue 21 , 2019

Abstract:

Cosmeceuticals are innovative emerging health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of cosmetic active ingredients and often innovative technological solutions of formulation and delivery. For decades, phytocompounds have been used in cosmetics as sunscreen, moisturizing, antiaging, and skin-based therapy. When compared to synthetic cosmetic ingredients, phytocompounds are generally milder, have a more favourable toxicity profile, and are biodegradable. The major concerns in the usage of phytocompounds are their low solubility, low penetration and physico-chemical instability when applied on the skin. To overcome these issues, different nanotechnology-based systems have been proposed and some of them are already on the market. Nanotechnologies can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble compounds, facilitate skin permeation and increase their stability against light and temperature. Liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes, ethosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, and cyclodextrins are examples of nanotechnology-based systems currently in use to improve the performances of phytocompounds in skin care. This review focuses on cosmeceuticals that explore nanotechnology-based systems for the delivery of phytocompounds and emphasizes how these approaches can improve product performances with respect to conventional cosmetic formulations.

Keywords: Phyto-cosmeceuticals, nanotechnologies, skin delivery, moisturizing, skin whitening, sun protectors, antiaging.

[1]
Draelos ZD. Cosmeceuticals: What’s Real, What’s Not. Dermatol Clin 2019; 37(1): 107-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2018.07.001] [PMID: 30466682]
[2]
Giovanini F. Cosmeceuticals come of age. Household and Personal Care Today 2006; pp. 54-6.
[3]
Chanchal D, Swarnlata S. Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics. J Cosmet Dermatol 2008; 7(2): 89-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-2165.2008.00369.x] [PMID: 18482010]
[4]
Ganesan P, Choi DK. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy. Int J Nanomedicine 2016; 11: 1987-2007.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S104701] [PMID: 27274231]
[5]
Costa R, Santos L. Delivery systems for cosmetics - From manufacturing to the skin of natural antioxidants. Powder Technol 2017; 322: 402-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2017.07.086]
[6]
Souza C, de Freitas LAP, Maia Campos PMBG. Topical formulation containing beeswax-based nanoparticles improved in vivo skin barrier function. AAPS PharmSciTech 2017; 18(7): 2505-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-017-0737-x] [PMID: 28213845]
[7]
De Jong WH, Borm PJ. Drug delivery and nanoparticles:applications and hazards. Int J Nanomedicine 2008; 3(2): 133-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S596] [PMID: 18686775]
[8]
Singh R, Lillard JW Jr. Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery. Exp Mol Pathol 2009; 86(3): 215-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2008.12.004] [PMID: 19186176]
[9]
Cizauskaite U, Bernatoniene J. Innovative natural ingredients-based multiple emulsions: the effect on human skin moisture, sebum content, pore size and pigmentation. Molecules 2018; 23: 1428/1-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061428]
[10]
Souza MA, Oliveira JE, Medeiros ES, Glenn GM, Mattoso LH. Controlled release of linalool using nanofibrous membranes of poly (lactic acid) obtained by electrospinning and solution blow spinning: a comparative study. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2015; 15(8): 5628-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2015.9692] [PMID: 26369129]
[11]
Ge W, Li D, Chen M, Wang X, Liu S, Sun R. Characterization and antioxidant activity of β-carotene loaded chitosan-graft-poly(lactide) nanomicelles. Carbohydr Polym 2015; 117: 169-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.09.056] [PMID: 25498622]
[12]
Sapino S, Carlotti ME, Cavalli R, et al. Photochemical and antioxidant properties of gamma-oryzanol in beta-cyclodextrin-based nanosponges. J Incl Phenom Macro 2013; 75: 69-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10847-012-0147-3]
[13]
Bossio O, Gomez-Mascaraque LG, Fernandez-Gutierrez M, Vazquez-Lasa B, Roman JS. Amphiphilic polysaccharide nanocarriers with antioxidant properties. J Bioact Compat Polym 2014; 29: 589-606.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883911514554336]
[14]
Farboud ES, Nasrollahi SA, Tabbakhi Z. Novel formulation and evaluation of a Q10-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle cream: in vitro and in vivo studies. Int J Nanomedicine 2011; 6: 611-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S16815] [PMID: 21674018]
[15]
Kaur IP, Kapila M, Agrawal R. Role of novel delivery systems in developing topical antioxidants as therapeutics to combat photoageing. Ageing Res Rev 2007; 6(4): 271-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2007.08.006] [PMID: 17933593]
[16]
Manosroi A, Chutoprapat R, Sato Y, et al. Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects of rice bran bioactive compounds entrapped in niosomes. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011; 11(3): 2269-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2011.3532] [PMID: 21449379]
[17]
Morabito K, Shapley NC, Steeley KG, Tripathi A. Review of sunscreen and the emergence of non-conventional absorbers and their applications in ultraviolet protection. Int J Cosmet Sci 2011; 33(5): 385-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2011.00654.x] [PMID: 21507015]
[18]
Niculae G, Lacatusu I, Bors A, Stan R. Photostability enhancement by encapsulation of alpha-tocopherol into lipid-based nanoparticles loaded with a UV filter. C R Chim 2014; 17: 1028-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2013.12.007]
[19]
Castangia I, Manca ML, Caddeo C, et al. Faceted phospholipid vesicles tailored for the delivery of Santolina insularis essential oil to the skin. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2015; 132: 185-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.05.025] [PMID: 26057243]
[20]
Manca ML, Castangia I, Caddeo C, et al. Improvement of quercetin protective effect against oxidative stress skin damages by incorporation in nanovesicles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2014; 123: 566-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.09.059] [PMID: 25444664]
[21]
Pando D, Caddeo C, Manconi M, Fadda AM, Pazos C. Nanodesign of olein vesicles for the topical delivery of the antioxidant resveratrol. J Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 65(8): 1158-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12093] [PMID: 23837583]
[22]
Cavinato M, Waltenberger B, Baraldo G, Grade CVC, Stuppner H, Jansen-Dürr P. Plant extracts and natural compounds used against UVB-induced photoaging. Biogerontology 2017; 18(4): 499-516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-017-9715-7] [PMID: 28702744]
[23]
Baccarin T, Lemos-Senna E. Potential application of nanoemulsions for skin delivery of pomegranate peel polyphenols. AAPS PharmSciTech 2017; 18(8): 3307-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-017-0818-x] [PMID: 28597364]
[24]
Chen J, Wei N, Lopez-Garcia M, et al. Development and evaluation of resveratrol, Vitamin E, and epigallocatechin gallate loaded lipid nanoparticles for skin care applications. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2017; 117: 286-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.04.008] [PMID: 28411056]
[25]
Puglia C, Lauro MR, Offerta A, et al. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) as vehicles for topical administration of sesamol: in vitro percutaneous absorption study and evaluation of antioxidant activity. Planta Med 2017; 83(5): 398-404.
[PMID: 27124246]
[26]
Li M, Zahi MR, Yuan Q, Tian F, Liang H. Preparation and stability of astaxanthin solid lipid nanoparticles based on stearic acid. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2016; 118: 592-602.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400650]
[27]
Sinico C, Caddeo C, Valenti D, Fadda AM, Bilia AR, Vincieri FF. Liposomes as carriers for verbascoside: stability and skin permeation studies. J Liposome Res 2008; 18(1): 83-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08982100801894067] [PMID: 18348074]
[28]
Mahdi ES, Noor AM, Sakeena MH, Abdullah GZ, Abdulkarim MF, Sattar MA. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging. Int J Nanomedicine 2011; 6: 2499-512.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S22337] [PMID: 22072884]
[29]
Paolino D, Cosco D, Cilurzo F, et al. Improved in vitro and in vivo collagen biosynthesis by asiaticoside-loaded ultradeformable vesicles. J Control Release 2012; 162(1): 143-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.05.050] [PMID: 22698941]
[30]
Montanari J, Vera M, Mensi E, Morilla M, Romero E. Nanoberries for topical delivery of antioxidants. J Cosmet Sci 2013; 64(6): 469-81.
[PMID: 24397884]
[31]
Ratz-Łyko A, Arct J. Resveratrol as an active ingredient for cosmetic and dermatological applications: a review. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2019; 21(2): 84-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14764172.2018.1469767] [PMID: 29737899]
[32]
Park SN, Jo NR, Jeon SH. Chitosan-coated liposomes for enhanced skin permeation of resveratrol. J Ind Eng Chem 2014; 20: 1481-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.07.035]
[33]
Yutani R, Teraoka R, Kitagawa S. Microemulsion using polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate and its usage for skin delivery of resveratrol to protect skin against UV-induced damage. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2015; 63(9): 741-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c15-00378] [PMID: 26329869]
[34]
Abla MJ, Banga AK. Formulation of tocopherol nanocarriers and in vitro delivery into human skin. Int J Cosmet Sci 2014; 36(3): 239-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12119] [PMID: 24697812]
[35]
Kumar S, Rao R, Kumar A, Mahant S, Nanda S. Novel Carriers for Coenzyme Q10 Delivery. Curr Drug Deliv 2016; 13(8): 1184-204.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201813666160104130631] [PMID: 26725722]
[36]
Lohan SB, Bauersachs S, Ahlberg S, et al. Ultra-small lipid nanoparticles promote the penetration of coenzyme Q10 in skin cells and counteract oxidative stress. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2015; 89: 201-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2014.12.008] [PMID: 25500282]
[37]
Ribeiro RC, Barreto SM, Ostrosky EA, da Rocha-Filho PA, Veríssimo LM, Ferrari M. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent. Molecules 2015; 20(2): 2492-509.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules20022492] [PMID: 25648593]
[38]
Dal’Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PMBG. Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques. Skin Res Technol 2006; 12(4): 241-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0909-752X.2006.00155.x] [PMID: 17026654]
[39]
Boucetta KQ, Charrouf Z, Aguenaou H, Derouiche A, Bensouda Y. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity. Clin Interv Aging 2015; 10: 339-49.
[PMID: 25673976]
[40]
Boucetta KQ, Charrouf Z, Derouiche A, Rahali Y, Bensouda Y. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use. Przegl Menopauz 2014; 13(5): 280-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pm.2014.46470] [PMID: 26327867]
[41]
Tichota DM, Silva AC, Sousa Lobo JM, Amaral MH. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration. Int J Nanomedicine 2014; 9: 3855-64.
[PMID: 25143733]
[42]
Manca ML, Matricardi P, Cencetti C, et al. Combination of argan oil and phospholipids for the development of an effective liposome-like formulation able to improve skin hydration and allantoin dermal delivery. Int J Pharm 2016; 505(1-2): 204-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.04.008] [PMID: 27063848]
[43]
Mota AH, Silva CO, Nicolai M, et al. Design and evaluation of novel topical formulation with olive oil as natural functional active. Pharm Dev Technol 2018; 23(8): 794-805.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2017.1340951] [PMID: 28598234]
[44]
Lilitchan S, Tangprawat C, Aryusuk K, Krisnangkura S, Chokmoh S, Krisnangkura K. Partial extraction method for the rapid analysis of total lipids and gamma-oryzanol contents in rice bran. Food Chem 2008; 106: 752-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.052]
[45]
Bernardi DS, Pereira TA, Maciel NR, et al. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments. J Nanobiotechnology 2011; 9: 44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-3155-9-44] [PMID: 21952107]
[46]
Rahaiee S, Moini S, Hashemi M, Shojaosadati SA. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review. J Food Sci Technol 2015; 52(4): 1881-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1238-x] [PMID: 25829569]
[47]
Puglia C, Santonocito D, Musumeci T, et al. Nanotechnological approach to increase the antioxidant and cytotoxic efficacy of crocin and crocetin. Planta Med 2019; 85(3): 258-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0732-5757] [PMID: 30206907]
[48]
Khameneh B, Halimi V, Jaafari MR, Golmohammadzadeh S. Safranal-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: evaluation of sunscreen and moisturizing potential for topical applications. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015; 18(1): 58-63.
[PMID: 25810877]
[49]
Nunes AR, Vieira ÍGP, Queiroz DB, et al. Use of flavonoids and cinnamates, the main photoprotectors with natural origin. Adv Pharmacol Sci 2018; 20185341487
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5341487] [PMID: 30622564]
[50]
Filho JMTA, Sampaio PA, Pereira ECV, et al. Flavonoids as photoprotective agents: a systematic review. J Med Plants Res 2016; 10: 848-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6273]
[51]
Choquenet B, Couteau C, Paparis E, Coiffard LJM. Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: determination of efficacy by an in vitro method. J Nat Prod 2008; 71(6): 1117-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np7007297] [PMID: 18512988]
[52]
Rajnochová Svobodová A, Gabrielová E, Michaelides L, et al. UVA-photoprotective potential of silymarin and silybin. Arch Dermatol Res 2018; 310(5): 413-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-018-1828-6] [PMID: 29564550]
[53]
Shenekar PN, Ukirade PS, Salunkhe SD, et al. In vitro evaluation of sun protection factor of fruit extract of Carica papaya L. as a lotion formulation. Eur J Exp Biol 2014; 4: 44-7.
[54]
Mitri K, Shegokar R, Gohla S, Anselmi C, Müller RH. Lipid nanocarriers for dermal delivery of lutein: preparation, characterization, stability and performance. Int J Pharm 2011; 414(1-2): 267-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.05.008] [PMID: 21596122]
[55]
Roberts RL, Green J, Lewis B. Lutein and zeaxanthin in eye and skin health. Clin Dermatol 2009; 27(2): 195-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2008.01.011] [PMID: 19168000]
[56]
Peres DD, Sarruf FD, de Oliveira CA, Velasco MVR, Baby AR. Ferulic acid photoprotective properties in association with UV filters: multifunctional sunscreen with improved SPF and UVA-PF. J Photochem Photobiol B 2018; 185: 46-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2018.05.026] [PMID: 29864725]
[57]
Monti D, Tampucci S, Chetoni P, et al. Permeation and distribution of ferulic acid and its α-cyclodextrin complex from different formulations in hairless rat skin. AAPS PharmSciTech 2011; 12(2): 514-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-011-9609-y] [PMID: 21491181]
[58]
Parisi OI, Aiello D, Casula MF, et al. Mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 loaded with ferulic acid for sunscreen and photo-protection: safety and efficacy assessment. RSC Advances 2016; 6: 83767-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6RA07653J]
[59]
Bumrungpert A, Chongsuwat R, Phosat C, Butacnum A. Rice Bran Oil Containing Gamma-Oryzanol Improves Lipid Profiles and Antioxidant Status in Hyperlipidemic Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial. J Altern Complement Med 2019; 25(3): 353-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0212] [PMID: 30265563]
[60]
Manosroi A, Chutoprapat R, Abe M, Manosroi W, Manosroi J. Anti-aging efficacy of topical formulations containing niosomes entrapped with rice bran bioactive compounds. Pharm Biol 2012; 50(2): 208-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2011.596206] [PMID: 22235888]
[61]
Giampieri F, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Tulipani S, et al. Photoprotective potential of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) extract against UV-A irradiation damage on human fibroblasts. J Agric Food Chem 2012; 60(9): 2322-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf205065x] [PMID: 22304566]
[62]
Nichols JA, Katiyar SK. Skin photoprotection by natural polyphenols: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms. Arch Dermatol Res 2010; 302(2): 71-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-009-1001-3] [PMID: 19898857]
[63]
Giampieri F, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Mazzoni L, et al. An anthocyanin-rich strawberry extract protects against oxidative stress damage and improves mitochondrial functionality in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to an oxidizing agent. Food Funct 2014; 5(8): 1939-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4FO00048J] [PMID: 24956972]
[64]
Shankar S, Rhim JW, Won K. Preparation of poly(lactide)/lignin/silver nanoparticles composite films with UV light barrier and antibacterial properties. Int J Biol Macromol 2018; 107(Pt B): 1724-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.10.038] [PMID: 29017879]
[65]
Simmons TJ, Lee SH, Miao J, et al. Preparation of synthetic wood composites using ionic liquids. Wood Sci Technol 2011; 45: 719-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00226-010-0395-6]
[66]
Qian Y, Qiu X, Zhu S. Lignin: a nature-inspired sun blocker for broad-spectrum sunscreens. Green Chem 2015; 17: 320-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4GC01333F]
[67]
Qian Y, Qiu X, Zhu S. Sunscreen performance of lignin from different technical resources and their general synergistic effect with synthetic sunscreens. ACS Sustain Chem& Eng 2016; 4: 4029-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00934]
[68]
Yearla SR, Padmasree K. Preparation and characterisation of lignin nanoparticles: evaluation of their potential as antioxidants and UV protectants. J Exp Nanosci 2016; 11: 289-302.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17458080.2015.1055842]
[69]
Qian Y, Zhong X, Li Y, Qiu X. Fabrication of uniform lignin colloidal spheres for developing natural broad-spectrum sunscreens with high sun protection factor. Ind Crops Prod 2017; 101: 54-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.03.001]
[70]
Andréo-Filho N, Bim AVK, Kaneko TM, et al. Development and Evaluation of Lipid Nanoparticles Containing Natural Botanical Oil for Sun Protection: Characterization and in vitro and in vivo Human Skin Permeation and Toxicity. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018; 31(1): 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000481691] [PMID: 29131088]
[71]
Hirano S, Noishiki Y. The blood compatibility of chitosan and N-acylchitosans. J Biomed Mater Res 1985; 19(4): 413-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820190406] [PMID: 4055824]
[72]
Koukaras EN, Papadimitriou SA, Bikiaris DN, Froudakis GE. Insight on the formation of chitosan nanoparticles through ionotropic gelation with tripolyphosphate. Mol Pharm 2012; 9(10): 2856-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp300162j] [PMID: 22845012]
[73]
Papadimitriou S, Bikiaris D, Avgoustakis K, Karavas E, Georgarakis M. Chitosan nanoparticles loaded with dorzolamide and pramipexole. Carbohydr Polym 2008; 73: 44-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.11.007]
[74]
Ntohogian S, Gavriliadou V, Christodoulou E, et al. Chitosan nanoparticles with encapsulated natural and uf-purified annatto and saffron for the preparation of uv protective cosmetic emulsions. Molecules 2018; 23: 2107/1-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092107]
[75]
Burlando B, Clericuzio M, Cornara L. Moraceae Plants with Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity: A Review. Mini Rev Med Chem 2017; 17(2): 108-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557516666160609071854] [PMID: 27292779]
[76]
Kanlayavattanakul M, Lourith N. Plants and Natural Products for the Treatment of Skin Hyperpigmentation - A Review. Planta Med 2018; 84(14): 988-1006.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0583-0410] [PMID: 29506294]
[77]
Pillaiyar T, Manickam M, Namasivayam V. Skin whitening agents: medicinal chemistry perspective of tyrosinase inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2017; 32(1): 403-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756366.2016.1256882] [PMID: 28097901]
[78]
Kamakshi R. Fairness via formulations: a review of cosmetic skin-lightening ingredients. J Cosmet Sci 2012; 63(1): 43-54.
[PMID: 22487451]
[79]
Al-Amin M, Cao J, Naeem M, et al. Increased therapeutic efficacy of a newly synthesized tyrosinase inhibitor by solid lipid nanoparticles in the topical treatment of hyperpigmentation. Drug Des Devel Ther 2016; 10: 3947-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S123759] [PMID: 27980392]
[80]
Ditre CM, Griffin TD, Murphy GF, et al. Effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on photoaged skin: a pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34(2 Pt 1): 187-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(96)80110-1] [PMID: 8642081]
[81]
Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. Washington, DC: ASM Press 1991.
[82]
Phetdee M, Polnok A, Viyoch J. Development of chitosan-coated liposomes for sustained delivery of tamarind fruit pulp’s extract to the skin. Int J Cosmet Sci 2008; 30(4): 285-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2008.00447.x] [PMID: 18713075]
[83]
Huang YB, Lee KF, Huang CT, Tsai YH, Wu PC. The effect of component of cream for topical delivery of hesperetin. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2010; 58(5): 611-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.58.611] [PMID: 20460784]
[84]
Tsai YH, Lee KF, Huang YB, Huang CT, Wu PC. In vitro permeation and in vivo whitening effect of topical hesperetin microemulsion delivery system. Int J Pharm 2010; 388(1-2): 257-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.12.051] [PMID: 20060453]
[85]
Ghiasi Z, Esmaeli F, Aghajani M, Ghazi-Khansari M, Faramarzi MA, Amani A. Enhancing analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin when loaded into olive oil nanoemulsion: An in vivo study. Int J Pharm 2019; 559: 341-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.01.043] [PMID: 30710660]
[86]
Puglia C, Rizza L, Drechsler M, Bonina F. Nanoemulsions as vehicles for topical administration of glycyrrhetic acid: characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Drug Deliv 2010; 17(3): 123-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10717540903581679] [PMID: 20136625]
[87]
Atrux-Tallau N, Lasselin J, Han SH, Delmas T, Bibette J. Quantitative analysis of ligand effects on bioefficacy of nanoemulsion encapsulating depigmenting active. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2014; 122: 390-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.07.021] [PMID: 25087020]
[88]
Kudo M, Kobayashi-Nakamura K, Tsuji-Naito K. Bifunctional effects of O-methylated flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on melanocytes: Inhibition of melanin production and intracellular melanosome transport. PLoS One 2017; 9;12(2): e0171513.
[89]
Wu X, Zhang H, Salmani JM, Fu R, Chen B. Advances of wogonin, an extract from Scutellaria baicalensis, for the treatment of multiple tumors. OncoTargets Ther 2016; 9: 2935-43.
[PMID: 27274287]
[90]
Li C, Lin G, Zuo Z. Pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics properties of Radix Scutellariae and its bioactive flavones. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2011; 32(8): 427-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdd.771] [PMID: 21928297]
[91]
Kim MK, Kim NY, Lee HY. Enhancement of the antioxidant and whitening activities of Scutellaria baicalensis extract by nanoencapsulation. Res J Biotechnol 2014; 9: 19-31.
[92]
Wang WP, Hul J, Sui H, Zhao YS, Feng J, Liu C. Glabridin nanosuspension for enhanced skin penetration: formulation optimization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Pharmazie 2016; 71(5): 252-7.
[PMID: 27348968]
[93]
Hespeler D, Kaltenbach J, Pyo SM. Glabridin smartPearls - Silica selection, production, amorphous stability and enhanced solubility. Int J Pharm 2019; 561: 228-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.02.028] [PMID: 30836152]
[94]
Leyden JJ, Shergill B, Micali G, Downie J, Wallo W. Natural options for the management of hyperpigmentation. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011; 25(10): 1140-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2011.04130.x] [PMID: 21623927]
[95]
Marto J, Sangalli C, Capra P, et al. Development and characterization of new and scalable topical formulations containing N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017; 43(11): 1792-800.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2017.1339083] [PMID: 28581831]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as


Article Details

VOLUME: 25
ISSUE: 21
Year: 2019
Page: [2314 - 2322]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190709211101
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 29
HTML: 4
EPUB: 1