Since the identification of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) as a disease in 1938 until 2012, only
therapies to treat symptoms rather than etiological therapies have been used to treat the disease. Over
the last few years, new technologies have been developed, and gene editing strategies are now
moving toward a one-time cure. This review will summarize recent advances in etiological therapies
that target the basic defect in the CF Transmembrane Receptor (CFTR), the protein that is mutated in
CF. We will discuss how newly identified compounds can directly target mutated CFTR to improve
its function. Moreover, we will discuss how proteostasis regulators can modify the environment in
which the mutant CFTR protein is synthesized and decayed, thus restoring CFTR function. The
future of CF therapies lies in combinatory therapies that may be personalized for each CF patient.
Keywords: CFTR, cystic fibrosis, gene editing, modulators, precision medicine, repositioning therapy.
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