Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth., an Endangered Himalayan Elixir- Medicinal Importance and Exploration of Biotechnological Approaches in Picroside Production

Author(s): Bharati Lalhal Barsain, Sudesh Kumar Yadav*.

Journal Name: Current Traditional Medicine

Volume 5 , Issue 4 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Although the history of P. kurrooa Royle ex Benth., popularly known as “Kutki or Kadu” dates back to the Vedic era, it has only been about 69 years since research has focussed on exploring its pharmacological properties. It is a small perennial medicinal herb that belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family. Found primarily in the north-western alpine Himalayan region at the altitudes of 3000-4300 meters (amsl), the plant has immense therapeutic and medicinal properties. Uniquely gifted, the plant holds its reputation in the modern system of medicine in the treatment of liver disorders. The species has earned an endangered status lately due to various issues like unawareness on its conservation, harvesting methods, and cultivation besides others. Therefore, various new scientific methods are being developed for its propagation and conservation. This article provides an overview of the therapeutic properties, various mode of propagation as well as the molecular aspects of P. kurrooa. Also, the metabolic engineering strategies to modulate its secondary metabolite picrosides are also discussed.

Keywords: P. kurrooa Royle ex Benth., picrosides, pharmacological properties, propagation, metabolic engineering, medicinal herbs.

[1]
Singh M, Tiwari V, Jain A, Ghoshal S. Protective activity of picroliv on hepatic amoebiasis associated with carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Indian J Med Res 2005; 121(5): 676-82.
[PMID: 15937372]
[2]
Sane SA, Shakya N, Gupta S. Immunomodulatory effect of picroliv on the efficacy of paromomycin and miltefosine in combination in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Exp Parasitol 2011; 127(2): 376-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2010.09.003] [PMID: 20846525]
[3]
Rastogi R, Srivastava AK, Srivastava M, Rastogi AK. Hepatocurative effect of picroliv and silymarin against aflatoxin B1 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Planta Med 2000; 66(8): 709-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-9907] [PMID: 11199126]
[4]
Royle JF. Illustrations of the botany and other branches of the natural history of the Himalayan mountains, and of the flora of Cashmere Volume platesReprint 1835-1840a.1970;
[5]
Royle JF. Illustrations of the botany and other branches of the natural history of the Himalayan mountains, and of the flora of Cashmere Volume text Reprint 1835-1840b.1970;
[6]
Bentham G. Scrophularineae Indicae. In: James Ridgway and Sons. London 1835; p. 47.
[7]
Pennell FW. The Scrophulariaceae of the Western Himalayas. 63-6.1943.
[8]
Nayar MP, Sastry ARK. Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Botanical Survey of India 1987-1990.
[9]
Polunin O, Stainton A. Flowers of the Himalayas. In: Oxford University Press. 6th ed. Delhi 1990; p. 295.
[10]
Iriti M, Faoro F. Chemical diversity and defense metabolism: How plants cope with pathogens and ozone pollution. Int J Mol Sci 2009; 10(8): 3371-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms10083371] [PMID: 20111684]
[11]
Kirakosyan A, Cseke LJ, Kaufman PB. The use of plant cell biotechnology for the production of phytochemicals Rec Adv Plant Biotech. Dordrecht: Springer 2009; pp. 15-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0194-1_2]
[12]
Pathania S, Ramakrishnan SM, Bagler G. Phytochemica: A platform to explore phytochemicals of medicinal plants. Database (Oxford) 2015; 2015: 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/bav075] [PMID: 26255307]
[13]
Rastogi RP, Sharma VN, Siddiqui S. Chemical examination of Picrorhiza kurroa Benth. Part1. J Sci Ind Res (India) 1949; 8B: 173-8.
[14]
Basu K, Dasgupta B, Ghosal S. Structure of kutkin, the bitter glucoside of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. J Org Chem 1970; 35(9): 3159-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo00834a071] [PMID: 5450529]
[15]
Zhang Y, DeWitt DL, Murugesan S, Nair MG. Novel lipid-peroxidation- and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory tannins from Picrorhiza kurroa seeds. Chem Biodivers 2004; 1(3): 426-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200490036] [PMID: 17191857]
[16]
Basu K, Dasgupta B, Bhattacharya SK, Debnath PK. Chemistry and pharmacology of apocynin, isolated from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. Curr Sci 1971; 40(22): 603-4.
[17]
Kitagawa I, Hino K, Nishimura T, et al. A bitter principle of Picrorhiza kurrooa. Tetrahedron Lett 1969; 43: 3837-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)88526-9]
[18]
Weinges K, Kloss P, Henkels WD. Picrosid-II, ein neues 6-vanilloyl-catalpol aus Picrorhiza kurroa Royle und Benth. Liebigs Ann Chem 1972; 759: 173-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlac.19727590113]
[19]
Singh B, Rastogi RP. Chemical examination of P. kurroa part II, re-investigation of kutkin. Indian J Chem 1972; 10: 29-31.
[20]
Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Ahuja PS. Online HPLC-DPPH method for antioxidant activity of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. and characterization of kutkoside by ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Indian J Exp Biol 2010; 48(3): 323-8.
[PMID: 21046989]
[21]
Weinges K, Kunstler K. Notiz uber die isolierung und konstitutionsaufklarung eines neuen picrosids aus Picrorhiza kurroa Royle und Benth. Liebigs Ann Chem 1977; 7: 1053-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlac.197719770619]
[22]
Laurie WA, McHale D, Sheeridan JB. Cucurbitacin glycoside from Picrorhiza kurrooa. Phytochemistry 1985; 24(11): 2659-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)80688-3]
[23]
Stuppner H, Wagner H. New cucurbitacin glycosides from Picrorhiza kurrooa. Planta Med 1989; 55(6): 559-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-962095] [PMID: 2616673]
[24]
Stuppner H. New cucurbitacin glycoside from Picrorhiza kurrooa. Planta Med 1990; 56: 551-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-961130]
[25]
Stuppner H, Muller EP, Wagner H. Cucurbitacins from Picrorhiza kurrooa. Phytochemistry 1991; 30(1): 305-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(91)84143-G]
[26]
Stuppner H, Muller EP. Cucurbitacins with unusual side chains from Picrorhiza kurrooa. Phytochemistry 1993; 33(5): 1139-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(93)85038-S]
[27]
Simons JM, Hart LA, Ching VDH, Silva DKTD, Labadie RP. Isolation of five low molecular compounds from a root extract of Picrorhiza kurrooa which affect the respiratory burst in activated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Planta Med 1989; 55: 113.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-961892]
[28]
Stuppner H, Wagner H. Minor iridoid and phenol glycosides of Picrorhiza kurroa. Planta Med 1989; 55(5): 467-469 b.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006- 962066] [PMID: 17262460]
[29]
Jia Q, Hong MF, Minter D. Pikuroside: A novel iridoid from Picrorhiza kurroa. J Nat Prod 1999; 62(6): 901-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np980493+] [PMID: 10395515]
[30]
Zhang Y, Dewitt DL, Murugesan S, Nair MG. Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory triterpenoids from Picrorhiza kurroa seeds. Life Sci 2005; 77(25): 3222-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.051] [PMID: 15979098]
[31]
Kumar V, Sood H, Sharma M, Chauhan RS. A proposed biosynthetic pathway of picrosides linked through the detection of biochemical intermediates in the endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa. Phytochem Anal 2013; 24(6): 598-602.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2437] [PMID: 23696248]
[32]
Kawoosa T, Singh H, Kumar A, et al. Light and temperature regulated terpene biosynthesis: Hepatoprotective monoterpene picroside accumulation in Picrorhiza kurrooa. Funct Integr Genomics 2010; 10(3): 393-404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-009-0152-9] [PMID: 20076984]
[33]
Bhat WW, Dhar RS, Vishwakarma RA, Lattoo SK. Metabolic profiling of Picrorhiza kurrooa and molecular characterization of key regulatory genes of picroside biosynthesis. In: The 4th European Molecular Biology Organisation meeting, Nice, France. 183. a
[34]
Bhat WW, Dhar N, Razdan S, et al. Molecular characterization of UGT94F2 and UGT86C4, two glycosyltransferases from Picrorhiza kurrooa: Comparative structural insight and evaluation of substrate recognition. PLoS One 2013; 8(9)e73804
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073804] [PMID: 24066073]
[35]
Pandit S, Shitiz K, Sood H, Naik PK, Chauhan RS. Expression pattern of fifteen genes of non-mevalonate (MEP) and mevalonate (MVA) pathways in different tissues of endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa with respect to picrosides content. Mol Biol Rep 2013; 40(2): 1053-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-012-2147-1] [PMID: 23065284]
[36]
Singh H, Gahlan P, Kumar S. Cloning and expression analysis of ten genes associated with picrosides biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurrooa. Gene 2013; 515(2): 320-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2012.12.004] [PMID: 23237774]
[37]
Bhat WW, Rana S, Dhar N, et al. An inducible NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Picrorhiza kurrooa - an imperative redox partner of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Funct Integr Genomics 2014; 14(2): 381-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-014-0362-7] [PMID: 24522789]
[38]
Bhat WW, Razdan S, Rana S, et al. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: Molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors. Gene 2014; 547(2): 245-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2014.06.046] [PMID: 24979341]
[39]
Gahlan P, Singh HR, Shankar R, et al. De novo sequencing and characterization of Picrorhiza kurrooa transcriptome at two temperatures showed major transcriptome adjustments. BMC Genomics 2012; 13: 126-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-126] [PMID: 22462805]
[40]
Shitiz K, Sharma N, Pal T, Sood H, Chauhan RS. NGS transcriptomes and enzyme inhibitors unravel complexity of picrosides biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth. PLoS One 2015; 10(12)e0144546
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144546] [PMID: 26658062]
[41]
Vashisht I, Pal T, Sood H, Chauhan RS. Comparative transcriptome analysis in different tissues of a medicinal herb, Picrorhiza kurroa pinpoints transcription factors regulating picrosides biosynthesis. Mol Biol Rep 2016; 43(12): 1395-409.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-016-4073-0] [PMID: 27633652]
[42]
Kumar V, Bansal A, Chauhan RS. Modular design of Picroside-II biosynthesis deciphered through NGS transcriptomes and metabolic intermediates analysis in naturally variant chemotypes of a medicinal herb, Picrorhiza kurroa. Front Plant Sci 2017; 8: 564.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00564] [PMID: 28443130]
[43]
Dwivedi Y, Rastogi R, Sharma SK, Garg NK, Dhawan BN. Picroliv affords protection against thioacetamide-induced hepatic damage in rats. Planta Med 1991; 57(1): 25-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960009] [PMID: 2062953]
[44]
Saraswat B, Visen PKS, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Hepatoprotective effect of picroliv against rifampicin induced toxicity. Drug Dev Res 1997; 40(4): 299-303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2299 (199704) 40:4<299:AID-DDR3>3.0.CO;2-E]
[45]
Visen PK, Shukla B, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Prevention of galactosamine-induced hepatic damage by picroliv: Study on bile flow and isolated hepatocytes (ex vivo). Planta Med 1993; 59(1): 37-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959600] [PMID: 8441780]
[46]
Singh V, Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN. Effect of picroliv on low density lipoprotein receptor binding of rat hepatocytes in hepatic damage induced by paracetamol. Indian J Biochem Biophys 1992; 29(5): 428-32.
[PMID: 1289234]
[47]
Dwivedi Y, Rastogi R, Sharma SK, Mehrotra R, Garg NK, Dhawan BN. Picroliv protects against monocrotaline-induced hepatic damage in rats. Pharmacol Res 1991; 23(4): 399-407.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1043-6618(91)90054-2] [PMID: 1908581]
[48]
Saraswat B, Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Protective effect of picroliv, active constituent of Picrorhiza kurrooa, against oxytetracycline induced hepatic damage. Indian J Exp Biol 1997; 35(12): 1302-5.
[PMID: 9567764]
[49]
Vivekanandan P, Gobianand K, Priya S, Vijayalakshmi P, Karthikeyan S. Protective effect of picroliv against hydrazine-induced hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in rats. Drug Chem Toxicol 2007; 30(3): 241-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480540701375216] [PMID: 17613009]
[50]
Yadav N, Dogra RK, Khan MY, Khandelwal S. Prevention of acute cadmium toxicity by Picroliv. Hum Exp Toxicol 2005; 24(10): 529-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0960327105ht563oa] [PMID: 16270754]
[51]
Saraswat B, Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Ex vivo and in vivo investigations of picroliv from Picrorhiza kurroa in an alcohol intoxication model in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 66(3): 263-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00007-0] [PMID: 10473171]
[52]
Rahman S, Sultana S. Protective effects of Picorrhiza kurroa extract against 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2007; 26(3): 195-205.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.v26.i3.40] [PMID: 18197835]
[53]
Dwivedi Y, Rastogi R, Garg NK, Dhawan BN. Effects of picroliv, the active principle of Picrorhiza kurroa, on biochemical changes in rat liver poisoned by Amanita phalloides. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 1992; 13(3): 197-200.
[PMID: 1359730]
[54]
Khanna AK, Chander R, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN. Hypolipidaemic activity of picroliv in albino rats. Phytother Res 1994; 8(7): 403-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2650080705]
[55]
Dhami-Shah H, Vaidya R, Udipi S, et al. Picroside II attenuates fatty acid accumulation in HepG2 cells via modulation of fatty acid uptake and synthesis. Clin Mol Hepatol 2018; 24(1): 77-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2017.0039] [PMID: 29254285]
[56]
Shukla B, Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Choleretic effect of picroliv, the hepatoprotective principle of Picrorhiza kurroa. Planta Med 1991; 57(1): 29-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960010] [PMID: 2062954]
[57]
Dhuley JN. Effect of picroliv administration on hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidases and glutathione-conjugating enzyme system in cholestatic rats Hindustan Antibiot Bull 47-48(1-4): 13-9.2005;
[58]
Banerjee D, Maity B, Nag SK, Bandyopadhyay SK, Chattopadhyay S. Healing potential of Picrorhiza kurroa (Scrofulariaceae) rhizomes against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration:A mechanistic exploration. BMC Complement Altern Med 2008; 8: 3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-8-3] [PMID: 18237397]
[59]
Zhang DK, Yu JJ, Li YM, et al. A Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, picroliv, attenuates the development of dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in mice. Mediators Inflamm 2012.2012751629
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/751629] [PMID: 23125487]
[60]
Huang Y, Zhou M, Li C, et al. Picroside II protects against sepsis via suppressing inflammation in mice. Am J Transl Res 2016; 8(12): 5519-31.
[PMID: 28078023]
[61]
Gupta A, Khajuria A, Singh J, et al. Immunomodulatory activity of biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 from Picrorhiza kurroa. Int Immunopharmacol 2006; 6(10): 1543-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2006.05.002] [PMID: 16919826]
[62]
Sidiq T, Khajuria A, Suden P, et al. Possible role of macrophages induced by an irridoid glycoside (RLJ-NE-299A) in host defense mechanism. Int Immunopharmacol 2011; 11(1): 128-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2010.10.017] [PMID: 21074614]
[63]
Kumar HM, Singh PP, Qazi NA, et al. Development of novel lipidated analogs of picroside as vaccine adjuvants: Acylated analogs of picroside-II elicit strong Th1 and Th2 response to ovalbumin in mice. Vaccine 2010; 28(52): 8327-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.062] [PMID: 20688035]
[64]
Hussain A, Shadma W, Maksood A, Ansari SH. Protective effects of Picrorhiza kurroa on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in mice. Pharmacognosy Res 2013; 5(1): 30-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.105646] [PMID: 23598922]
[65]
Chauhan S, Nath N, Tule V. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Picrorhiza kurrooa rhizome extracts in diabetic rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2008; 23(3): 238-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12291-008-0053-z] [PMID: 23105761]
[66]
Lee HS, Ku SK. Effect of Picrorrhiza rhizoma extracts on early diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 2008; 11(2): 294-301.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2007.578] [PMID: 18598172]
[67]
Husain GM, Singh PN, Kumar V. Antidiabetic activity of standardized extract of Picrorhiza kurroa in rat model of NIDDM. Drug Discov Ther 2009; 3(3): 88-92.
[PMID: 22495535]
[68]
Kumar S, Patial V, Soni S, et al. Picrorhiza kurroa enhances β-cell mass proliferation and insulin secretion in streptozotocin evoked β-cell damage in rats. Front Pharmacol 2017; 8: 537.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00537] [PMID: 28878669]
[69]
Vohora SB, Kumar I, Naqvi S, Afaq SH. Pharmacological investigation on Picrorhiza kurrooa roots with special reference to its choleretic and antimicrobial properties. Indian J Pharmacol 1972; 34: 17-9.
[70]
Rani P, Khullar N. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Phytother Res 2004; 18(8): 670-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1522] [PMID: 15476301]
[71]
Patil V, Bandivadekar A, Debjani D. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes lipase by extracts of Indian medicinal plants. Int J Cosmet Sci 2012; 34(3): 234-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2012.00706.x] [PMID: 22268921]
[72]
Mehrotra R, Rawat S, Kulshreshtha DK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. In vitro studies on the effect of certain natural products against hepatitis B virus. Indian J Med Res 1990; 92: 133-8.
[PMID: 2370093]
[73]
Chander R, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN. Effect of picroliv on glutathione metabolism in liver and brain of Mastomys natalensis infected with Plasmodium berghei. Indian J Exp Biol 1992; 30(8): 711-4.
[PMID: 1459651]
[74]
Chander R, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN. Picroliv affects gamma-glutamyl cycle in liver and brain of Mastomys natalensis infected with Plasmodium berghei. Indian J Exp Biol 1994; 32(5): 324-7.
[PMID: 7927525]
[75]
Mandloi D, Agarwal A, Goyal S, Wadhwa S, Patel R, Rawal H. Anti-fungal potential of alcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurrooa. Pharmacologyonline 2010; 3: 882-5.
[76]
Joy KL, Rajeshkumar NV, Kuttan G, Kuttan R. Effect of Picrorrhiza kurroa extract on transplanted tumours and chemical carcinogenesis in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 71(1-2): 261-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00168-9] [PMID: 10904172]
[77]
Dhuley JN. Effect of some Indian herbs on macrophage functions in ochratoxin a treated mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1997; 58(1): 15-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00072-X] [PMID: 9324000]
[78]
Rajeshkumar NV, Kuttan R. Modulation of carcinogenic response and antioxidant enzymes of rats administered with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine by Picroliv. Cancer Lett 2003; 191(2): 137-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(02)00203-3] [PMID: 12618326]
[79]
Rajkumar V, Guha G, Kumar RA. Antioxidant and anti-neoplastic activities of Picrorhiza kurroa extracts. Food Chem Toxicol 2011; 49(2): 363-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.11.009] [PMID: 21081148]
[80]
Rathee D, Thanki M, Bhuva S, Anandjiwala S, Agrawal R. Iridoid glycosides-kutkin, picroside I, and kutkoside from Picrorrhiza kurroa Benth. inhibits the invasion and migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through the down regulation of matrix metalloproteinases. Arab J Chem 2013; 6(1): 49-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2011.01.011]
[81]
Rajaprabhu D, Rajesh R, Jeyakumar R, Buddhan S, Ganesan B, Anandan R. Protective effect of Picrorhiza kurroa on antioxidant defense status in adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. J Med Plants Res 2007; 1(4): 80-5.
[82]
Nandave M, Ojha SK, Kumari S, et al. Cardioprotective effect of root extract of Picrorhiza kurroa (Royle Ex Benth) against isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2013; 51(9): 694-701.
[PMID: 24377128]
[83]
Li JZ, Yu SY, Mo D, Tang XN, Shao QR. Picroside II inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by ameliorating mitochondrial function through a mechanism involving a decrease in reactive oxygen species production. Int J Mol Med 2015; 35(2): 446-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.2009] [PMID: 25421707]
[84]
Rahman T, Rahman KA, Rajia S, Alamgir M, Khan MTH, Choudhuri MSK. Preliminary study on the central nervous system depressant effect of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle., Scrophulariaceae in mice model. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2008; 8(4): 448-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.4.448]
[85]
Zhang H, Zhai L, Wang T, Li S, Guo Y. Picroside II exerts a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting the mitochondria cytochrome C signal pathway following ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. J Mol Neurosci 2017; 61(2): 267-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-016-0870-0] [PMID: 28054226]
[86]
Sethi N, Singh RK, Sinha N, Bhatia G, Srivastava S, Roy AK. Safety evaluation studies on a new hepatoprotective agent picroliv in rats and monkeys. Biol Mem 1991; 17: 57.
[87]
Chander R, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN. Picroliv, picroside-I and kutkoside from Picrorhiza kurrooa are scavengers of superoxide anions. Biochem Pharmacol 1992; 44(1): 180-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(92)90054-M] [PMID: 1321626]
[88]
Singh V, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN. Effect of picroliv on protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Indian J Exp Biol 1992; 30(1): 68-9.
[PMID: 1506022]
[89]
Gaddipati JP, Madhavan S, Sidhu GS, Singh AK, Seth P, Maheshwari RK. Picroliv - a natural product protects cells and regulates the gene expression during hypoxia/reoxygenation. Mol Cell Biochem 1999; 194(1-2): 271-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006982028460] [PMID: 10391150]
[90]
Zhou KR, Lai YL. Oxygen radicals in exsanguination-induced bronchoconstriction of guinea pigs. Lung 1994; 172(5): 281-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00164310] [PMID: 7934152]
[91]
Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Harikumar KB, Ahn KS, Badmaev V, Aggarwal BB. Modification of cysteine residue in p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) by picroliv suppresses NF-kappaB-regulated gene products and potentiates apoptosis. Cancer Res 2008; 68(21): 8861-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1902] [PMID: 18974130]
[92]
Piao X, Liu B, Guo L, Meng F, Gao L. Picroside II shows protective functions for severe acute pancreatitis in rats by preventing NF-κB-dependent autophagy. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017.20177085709
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/7085709] [PMID: 28713490]
[93]
Simons JM, Hart BA, Ip Ching VTR, Dijk VH, Labadie RP. Metabolic activation of natural phenols into selective oxidative burst agonists by activated human neutrophils. Free Radic Biol Med 1990; 8(3): 251-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(90)90070-Y] [PMID: 2160411]
[94]
Simonyi A, Serfozo P, Lehmidi TM, et al. The neuroprotective effects of apocynin. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2012; 4: 2183-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/e535] [PMID: 22202030]
[95]
Wang Y, Luo X, Pan H, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase protects against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice by two step mechanism. Food Chem Toxicol 2015; 83: 251-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2015.05.007] [PMID: 26032634]
[96]
Philippens IH, Wubben JA, Finsen B, ’t Hart BA. Oral treatment with the NADPH oxidase antagonist apocynin mitigates clinical and pathological features of parkinsonism in the MPTP marmoset model. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013; 8(3): 715-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11481-013-9450-z] [PMID: 23504289]
[97]
Romanini CV, Ferreira ED, Soares LM, Santiago AN, Milani H, de Oliveira RM. 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone-mediated long-lasting memory recovery, hippocampal neuroprotection, and reduction of glial cell activation after transient global cerebral ischemia in rats. J Neurosci Res 2015; 93(8): 1240-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23575] [PMID: 25702923]
[98]
Gimenes R, Gimenes C, Rosa CM, et al. Influence of apocynin on cardiac remodeling in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2018; 17(1): 15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-017-0657-9] [PMID: 29343259]
[99]
Dorsch W, Stuppner H, Wagner H, Gropp M, Demoulin S, Ring J. Antiasthmatic effects of Picrorhiza kurroa: Androsin prevents allergen- and PAF-induced bronchial obstruction in guinea pigs. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1991; 95(2-3): 128-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000235416] [PMID: 1718906]
[100]
Bedi KL, Zutshi U, Chopra CL, Amla V. Picrorhiza kurroa, an ayurvedic herb, may potentiate photochemotherapy in vitiligo. J Ethnopharmacol 1989; 27(3): 347-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(89)90009-3] [PMID: 2615440]
[101]
Jing Lv, Wang H, Zhao X, Pan L, Ye Y, Zhou Y. HPLC analysis and pharmacokinetics of picroside I in dog plasma. Chromatographia 2007; 66(3-4): 261-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1365/s10337-007-0288-5]
[102]
Upadhyay D, Dash RP, Anandjiwala S, Nivsarkar M. Comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of picrosides I and II from kutkin, Picrorhiza kurroa extract and its formulation in rats. Fitoterapia 2013; 85: 76-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2013.01.004] [PMID: 23333583]
[103]
Pandey VN. 1966.
[104]
Antarkar DS, Vaidya AB, Doshi JC, et al. A double-blind clinical trial of Arogya-wardhani- an ayurvedic drug in acute viral hepatitis. Indian J Med Res 1980; 72: 588-93.
[PMID: 7014428]
[105]
Vaidya AB, Antarkar DS, Athhavale AV, Vijaya R, Baxi AJ, Doshi JC. Treatment of acute viral hepatitis with Picrohiza kurroa Assn Phys. In: Abstracts: Ind. 1981.
[106]
Vaidya AB, Antarkar DS, Doshi JC, et al. Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutaki) Royle ex Benth as a hepatoprotective agent-experimental & clinical studies. J Postgrad Med 1996; 42(4): 105-8.
[PMID: 9715310]
[107]
Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Gupta AP, Kaul VK, Ahuja PS. Stability indicating LC‐PDA method for determination of picrosides in hepatoprotective Indian herbal preparations of Picrorhiza kurroa. Chromatographia 2009; 69(3-4): 221-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1365/s10337-008-0889-7]
[108]
Singh H, Gahlan P, Dutt S, Ahuja PS, Kumar S. Why uproot Picrorhiza kurrooa, an endangered medicinal herb? Curr Sci 2011; 100(7): 1055-9.
[109]
Katoch M, Fazli IS, Suri KA, Ahuja A, Qazi GN. Effect of altitude on picroside content in core collections of Picrorhiza kurrooa from the north western Himalayas. J Nat Med 2011; 65(3-4): 578-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11418-010-0491-9] [PMID: 21347670]
[110]
Sharma N, Pathania V, Singh B, Gupta RC. Intraspecific variability of main phytochemical compounds in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. from North Indian higher altitude Himalayas using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Med Plants Res 2012; 6(16): 3181-7.
[111]
Pandit S, Shitiz K, Sood H, Chauhan RS. Differential biosynthesis and accumulation of picrosides in an endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 2012; 22(3): 335-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13562-012-0136-z]
[112]
Sood H, Chauhan RS. Biosynthesis and accumulation of a medicinal compound, picroside I, in cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 2010; 100: 113-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11240-009-9618-7]
[113]
Sharma N, Chauhan RS, Sood H. Discerning picroside-I biosynthesis via molecular dissection of in vitro shoot regeneration in Picrorhiza kurroa. Plant Cell Rep 2016; 35(8): 1601-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-016-1976-0] [PMID: 27038441]
[114]
Verma PC, Rahman LQ, Negi AS, Jain DC, Khanuj SPS, Banerjee S. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., establishment and selection of superior hairy root clone. Plant Biotechnol Rep 2007; 1: 169-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11816-007-0029-0]
[115]
Dwivedi AK, Kulkarni D, Singh S. Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method for the determination of picroside I in plasma. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 1997; 698(1-2): 317-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4347(97)00272-7] [PMID: 9367223]
[116]
Sturm S, Stuppner H. Analysis of iridoids glycosides from P. kurroa by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chromatographia 2001; 53(11-12): 612-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02493007]
[117]
Lv J, Pan L, Ye Y, Zhou Y. A sensitive and selective RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of picroside-I and picroside-II in rat plasma and its application in pharmacokinetics studies. J Sep Sci 2007; 30(15): 2466-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200700139] [PMID: 17628865]
[118]
Narayanan P, Akamanchi KG. Colorimetric estimation of total iridoid content of Picrorhiza kurrooa. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2003; 5(2): 105-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028602021000054955] [PMID: 12765194]
[119]
Singh N, Gupta AP, Singh B, Kaul VK. Quantification of picroside I and picroside II in Picrorhiza kurroa by HPTLC. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 2005; 28(11): 1679-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JLC-200060439]
[120]
Kumar V, Chauhan RS, Sood H, Tandon C. Cost effective quantification of picrosides in Picrorhiza kurrooa by employing response surface methodology using HPLC-UV. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 2014; 24(4): 376-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13562-014-0285-3]
[121]
Sajwan BS, Kala CP. Conservation of medicinal plants, Conventional and contemporary strategies, regulations and executions. Indian For 2007; 133(4): 484-95.
[122]
Nautiyal BP, Prakash V, Chauhan RS, Purohit H, Nautiyal MC. Assessment of germinability, productivity and cost benefit analysis of Picrorhiza kurrooa cultivated at lower altitudes. Curr Sci 2001; 81: 579-85.
[123]
Nautiyal MC. Germination studies on some high altitude medicinal plant species. Proceedings of Indigenous Medicinal Plant Symposium, Today and Tomorrows Printers and Publishers. New Delhi. 1988; pp. 107-2.
[124]
Chandra B, Palni LMS, Nandi SK. Propagation and conservation of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth., an endangered Himalayan medicinal herb of high commercial value. Biodivers Conserv 2006; 15: 2325-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-005-0770-z]
[125]
Nivot N, Olivier A, Lapointe L. Vegetative propagation of five northern forest understory plant species from either rhizome or stem sections. HortScience 2008; 43(5): 1531-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.5.1531]
[126]
Lal N, Ahuja PS, Kukreja AK, Pandey B. Clonal propagation of Picrorhiza kurroa royle ex benth. by shoot tip culture. Plant Cell Rep 1988; 7(3): 202-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00269324] [PMID: 24241600]
[127]
Upadhyay R, Arumugam N, Bhojwani SS. In vitro propagation of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. an endangered species of medicinal importance. Phytomorph 39: 235-42.1989
[128]
Lal N, Ahuja PS. Plantlet regeneration from callus in Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. -an endangered medicinal plant. Plant Tissue Cult 1996; 6(2): 127-34.
[129]
Sood H, Chauhan RS. High frequency callus induction and plantlet regeneration from different explants of Picrorhiza kurrooa-a medicinal herb of Himalayas. Afr J Biotechnol 2009; 8(9): 1965-72.
[130]
Jan A, Thomas G, Shawl AS, Jabeen N, Kozgar MI. Improved micropropagation protocol of an endangered medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. promptly through auxin treatments. Warasan Khana Witthayasat Maha Witthayalai Chiang Mai 2010; 37(2): 304-13.
[131]
Lal N, Ahuja PS. Establishment of medium-term tissue cultures of Picrorhiza kurrooa and Rheum emodi. Plant Tissue Cult 1995; 5: 147-52.
[132]
Chandra B, Palni LMS, Nandi SK. Micropropagation of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.; An endangered alpine herb, using cotyledonary node and shoot tip explants. Phytomorphology 2004; 54(3&4): 303-16.
[133]
Sood H, Chauhan RS. Development of a low cost micropropagation technology for an endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa of North-Western Himalayas. J Plant Sci 2009; 4(2): 21-31 a.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jps.2009.21.31]
[134]
Patial V, Devi K, Sharma M, Bhattacharya A, Ahuja PS. Propagation of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., an important medicinal plant of Western Himalaya. J Med Plants Res 2012; 6(34): 4848-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.115]
[135]
Bhat WW, Lattoo SK, Rana S, et al. Efficient plant regeneration via direct organogenesis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Picrorhiza kurroa, an endangered medicinal herb of the alpine Himalayas. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 2012; 48(3): 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11627-012-9434-3]
[136]
Trivedi P, Pandey A. Biological hardening of micropropagated Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth., an endangered species of medicinal importance. World J Microb Biot 2007; 23: 877-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-006-9293-3]
[137]
Mishra J, Singh M, Palni LMS, Nandi SK. Assessment of genetic fidelity of encapsulated microshoots of Picrorhiza kurrooa. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 2011; 104(2): 181-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11240-010-9816-3]
[138]
Mahajan R, Kapoor N, Singh I. Somatic embryogenesis and callus proliferation in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth. JEBAS 2016; 4(2): 201-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18006/2016.4(2).201.209]
[139]
Verma PC, Singh H, Negi AS, Saxena G, Rahman LU, Banerjee S. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Plant Signal Behav 2015; 10(5)e1023976
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2015.1023976] [PMID: 26039483]
[140]
Qadri M, Deshidi R, Shah BA, Bindu K, Vishwakarma RA, Riyaz-Ul-Hassan S. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2015; 31(10): 1647-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-015-1910-6] [PMID: 26220851]
[141]
Pandey SS, Singh S, Babu CS, et al. Fungal endophytes of Catharanthus roseus enhance vindoline content by modulating structural and regulatory genes related to terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 26583.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep26583] [PMID: 27220774]
[142]
Butelli E, Titta L, Giorgio M, et al. Enrichment of tomato fruit with health-promoting anthocyanins by expression of select transcription factors. Nat Biotechnol 2008; 26(11): 1301-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1506] [PMID: 18953354]
[143]
Mahmoud SS, Croteau RB. Strategies for transgenic manipulation of monoterpene biosynthesis in plants. Trends Plant Sci 2002; 7(8): 366-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02303-8] [PMID: 12167332]
[144]
Pickens LB, Tang Y, Chooi YH. Metabolic engineering for the production of natural products. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2011; 2: 211-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061010-114209] [PMID: 22432617]
[145]
Kumar V, Sharma N, Sood H, Chauhan RS. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 29750.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep29750] [PMID: 27418367]
[146]
Choi J, Choi BK, Kim JS, et al. Picroside II attenuates airway inflammation by downregulating the transcription factor GATA3 and Th2-related cytokines in a mouse model of HDM-induced allergic asthma. PLoS One 2017; 12(1)e0170832
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170832] [PMID: 28107518]
[147]
Kawoosa T, Gahlan P, Devi AS, Kumar S. The GATA and SORLIP motifs in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase promoter of Picrorhiza kurrooa for the control of light-mediated expression. Funct Integr Genomics 2014; 14(1): 191-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-013-0350-3] [PMID: 24318764]
[148]
Barsain BL, Yadav SK, Hallan VJ. Promoter and methylation status analysis revealed the importance of PkGES gene in picroside biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurrooa. In: Plant Biochem Biotechnol. 2019.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13562-019-00498-z]
[149]
Dehli T, Solem C, Jensen PR. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology. Subcell Biochem 2012; 64: 181-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5055-5_9] [PMID: 23080251]
[150]
Mercer AC, Gaj T, Sirk SJ, Lamb BM, Barbas CF III. Regulation of endogenous human gene expression by ligand-inducible TALE transcription factors. ACS Synth Biol 2014; 3(10): 723-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/sb400114p] [PMID: 24251925]
[151]
Gilbert LA, Larson MH, Morsut L, et al. CRISPR-mediated modular RNA-guided regulation of transcription in eukaryotes. Cell 2013; 154(2): 442-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.044] [PMID: 23849981]
[152]
Rao SR, Ravishankar GA. Plant cell cultures: Chemical factories of secondary metabolites. Biotechnol Adv 2002; 20(2): 101-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0734-9750(02)00007-1] [PMID: 14538059]
[153]
Nishikata K, Cox RS III, Shimoyama S, et al. Database construction for Promoter CAD: Synthetic promoter design for mammals and plants. ACS Synth Biol 2014; 3(3): 192-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/sb400178c] [PMID: 24364365]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 5
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2019
Page: [298 - 320]
Pages: 23
DOI: 10.2174/2215083805666190625144322
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 27
HTML: 2