Background: Brain is the most sensitive organ, whereas brainstem is the most important
part of Central Nervous System (CNS). It connects the brain and the spinal cord. However, a myriad
of drugs and chemicals affects CNS with severe resultant effects on the brainstem.
Methods: In view of this, a number of literature were assessed for information on the most sensitive
part of brain, drugs and chemicals that act on the brainstem and clinical benefit and risk assessment
of such drugs and chemicals.
Results: Findings have shown that brainstem regulates heartbeat, respiration and because it connects
the brain and spinal cord, all the drugs that act on the spinal cord may overall affect the systems controlled
by the spinal cord and brain. The message is sent and received by temporal lobe, occipital
lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe and cerebellum.
Conclusion: Hence, the chemical functional groups of the brainstem and drugs acting on brainstem
are complementary, and may produce either stimulation or depression of CNS.