Use of Agricultural Residues in Anaerobic Digestion for Energy Production

Author(s): Willem J. Oosterkamp*.

Journal Name: Current Alternative Energy

Volume 3 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


There are large amounts of manure and crop residues that could be used for the generation of renewable energy. Anaerobic Digestion [AD] converts the easily degraded part of these materials into bio-methane and other gases. Bio-methane can be used for the generation of heat and electricity. Only combinations of manure slurries and crop residues are economic substrates for AD. Crop residues are lignocellulosic materials that need to be macerated for efficient conversion into biogas.

Methane yields for different straw lengths and energy requirements for maceration were compiled. The need for sufficient bioavailable micronutrients was established and methane yields for combinations of manure slurries and straw are given. Harvesting methods for crop residues are discussed and a model is developed for the effective organic matter in the effluent of the AD plant.

AD of straw and manures is, with the present subsidies, economic only where AD is done in cooperatives with the members delivering straw and manure and taking back the effluent.

The large scale of AD of manures and crop residues requires reductions in the costs of harvesting transport and storage of crop residues and a solution to the phosphate surplus in the regions with a large concentration of animals.

Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, crop residues micronutrients, manure slurries, bio-methane, economic substrates, Harvesting methods.

M. Hoogwijk, A. Faaij, R. Van den Broek, G. Berndes, D. Gielen, and W. Turkenburg, "Exploration of the ranges of the global potential of biomass for energy", Biomass Bioenergy, vol. 25, pp. 119-133, 2003. [].
F.S. Nielsen, and K. Fröhlich, “High efficient biomass energy production” Best available technological solution for dry agro biomass combustion” in ann. “From sustainable biomass to competitive bioenergy - Insights into Danish bioenergy solutions., State of Green: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2015.
P. Spackman, Policy changes dampen new straw power potential. Farmers weekly, p. 11, May 2017.
C.E. Hendriksen, Experience with straw firing in Danish combined heat and power plants., Kaleidoskop Biomasse, Östereichische Akademie der Wissenschaften: Vienna, 2018.
M. Hryniewicz, and A. Grzybek, "Surplus of straw available for use for energy needs in 2016", Probl. Inz. Rol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 15-31, 2017.
S. Ruhnau, P. Fay, J. Kahlert, and J. Ahrtkamp, BHKW- kenndaten . 2011” Berlin Arbeitsgemeinschaft für sparsamen und umwelt- freundlichen Energieverbrauch, 2011, pp 1-64
I. Waardenburg, Diemen-34 levert eerste stroom. Technisch weekblad, Sep 2012.
D.W. Hamilton, Anaerobic digestion of animal manures: Types of digesters BAE-1750., Stillwater Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, 2014, pp. 1-4.
W.J. Oosterkamp, "" Progress in the anaerobic digestion of manure” Chapter 16 in M. Hosseini ed. Advanced Bioprocessing for Alternative Fuels, Biobased Chemicals, and Bioproducts, Sao Paulo Elsevier, ", 2019
F. Velghe, and I. Wierinck, Evaluation of digesters in the Netherlands.. Gent. Organic Waste Syst., pp. 1-5, 2013.
L. Pari, Possible measures to reduce impacts of crop residue removal: Experiences on wheat harvest in Sweden and France., Council for Agricultural Research and Economics Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing: Rome, Italy, 2018.
S. Antonczyk, R. Arthur, and P. Scherer, Straw as a sustainable farm-based feedstock for biogas EBA workshop. 8 February Brussels European Biomass Association, 2017
D.R. Sauerbeck, and M.A. Gonzalez, "Field decomposition of carbon-14-labelled plant residues in various soils of the Federal Republic of Germany and Costa Rica", In: Soil organic matter studies., Vienna: IAEA, 1977, pp. 159-170.
I. Angelidaki, M. Alves, D. Bozonella, L. Borzacconi, J.L. Campos, A.J. Guwy, S. Kaluzhnyi, P. Jenicek, and J.B. van Lier, "Defining the Biomethane Potential (BMP) of solid organic wastes and energy crops: A proposed protocol for batch assays", Water Sci. Technol., vol. 595, pp. 927-934, 2009.
W.F. Owen, D.C. Stuckey, J.B. Healy Jr, L.Y. Young, and P.L. Mccagry, "Bioassay for monitoring biochemical methane potential and anaerobic toxicity", Water Res., vol. 13, pp. 484-492, 1979. [].
C. Dumas, G.S.G. Damasceno, A. Barakat, H. Carrère, J.P. Steyer, and X. Rouau, "Effects of grinding processes on anaerobic digestion of wheat straw", Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 74, pp. 450-456, 2015. [].
S.R.A. Collins, N. Wellner, I. Martinez Bordonado, A.L. Harper, C.N. Miller, I. Bancroft, and K.W. Waldron, "Variation in the chemical composition of wheat straw: The role of tissue ratio and composition", Biotechnol. Biofuels, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 121, 2014. []. [PMID: 25426162].
R.S. Fukushima, and R.D. Hatfield, "Comparison of the acetyl bromide spectrophotometric method with other analytical lignin methods for determining lignin concentration in forage samples", J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 3713-3720, 2004. []. [PMID: 15186087].
C.A.N. Xavier, V. Moset, R. Wahid, and H.B. Møller, "The efficiency of shredded and briquetted wheat straw in anaerobic co-digestion with dairy cattle manure", Biosyst. Eng., vol. 139, pp. 16-24, 2015. [].
T. Bonde, " " Development of a new concept for the production of straw briquettes for use in biogas plants "in R. Heizel ed. Proceeding Biogas from Stroh Hildesheim ProFair consult+ Project GmbH", 2017, pp. 75-83
S. Sciverner, Krone premos 5000- where is this exciting machine?, Farmhand, pp. 1-11. 2018
D. Murphy, Why bale when you can pellet- Premos 5000 Wins Agritechnica Gold Picture. Real Agric., pp. 1-6, November 2016.
K. Shinners, and J. Friede, "Energy requirements for biomass harvest and densification", Energies, vol. 2018, no. 11, pp. 780-798, 2018. [].
J. Rumpler, SpreuStroh Neues ProduktVerfahren., LLG Sachsen-Anhalt: Bernburg Schmalkalden, Germany, 2014.
B.E. Prentice, S. Stewart, and Z. Wang, An Economic Assessment of the McLeod Harvest., Winnipeg,: University of Manitoba, 1999, pp. 1-65.
L. Spokas, and W. Boß, Perspective process variants of the grain crops in the USSR Agricultural Engineering., Berlin, 1985, p. 4.
B.D. Weiß, and C. Glasner, "Evaluation of the process steps of pretreatment, pellet production and combustion for an energetic utilization of wheat chaff", Front. Environ. Sci., pp. 1-19, 2018.
I.S. Horváth, M. del Pilar Castillo, A. Schnürer, S. Agnihotri, P. Ylitervo, and M. Edström, Utilization of straw pellets and briquettes as co-substrates at biogas plants., Energiforsk AB: Stockholm, Sweden, 2015.
S. Menardo, G. Airoldi, and P. Balsari, "The effect of particle size and thermal pre-treatment on the methane yield of four agricultural by-products", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 104, pp. 708-714, 2012.
" Slotjuk in H. Oechsner."Forschungsinitiative und -projekte Der Landwirt als Energiewirt"", In: Biogastag Baden-Württemberg” 13. März 2012., Hohenheim University of Hohenheim, 2012, pp. 1-43.
M. Victorin, Characterization methods for mechanically pretreated wheat straw in anaerobic digestion. Lund, Thesis Lund University, 2017, pp. 1-14.
M. Mönch-Tegeder, A. Lemmer, H. Oechsner, and T. Jungbluth, "Investigation of the methane potential of horse manure", Agric. Eng. Int. CIGR J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 161-172, 2013.
A. van de Berg, Substrateffizienz mit silierten Rüben und optimierte Technikeinsatz., Woperis: Doetichem, Netherlands, 2013.
J.C. Eberlein, Optimizing the yield of methanation units by the incorporation technique - The contribution of grinding. Montboucher Vogelsang, pp. 1-34.
N. Tröster, and M. Bleisteiner, "Lang oder gehäkselt pressen?", Landtechnik, pp. 49-52, 2012.
V.S.P. Bitra, A.R. Womac, C. Igathinathane, P.I. Miu, Y.T. Yang, D.R. Smith, N. Chevanan, and S. Sokhansanj, "Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, pp. 6578-6585, 2009.
J.S. Tumuluru, L.G. Tabil, Y. Song, K.L. Iroba, and V. Meda, "Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws", Biomass Bioenergy, vol. 60, pp. 58-67, 2014.
H. Oechsner, ""2012. Forschungsinitiative und -projecte zur biogasforschung. In: Kranert, M. (Ed.), 8e Biogastag Baden Wuertenberg 13 Maerz 2012 Hohenheim. Essen, Oldenbourg Industrie Verlag", 2012, pp. 1-144.
C. Spurk, Effiziensoffensive Biogas - Vorstellung der suprajet R. Heinzel ed. Tagungsband Biogas aus Stroh, Hildesheim ProFair consult + Project GmbH,, 2018 pp. 49-54.
G. Schätsel, Increase digestion efficiency when using straw and grass with high power R. Heinzel ed. Tagungsband Biogas aus Stroh, Hildesheim ProFair consult + Project GmbH, 2018, pp. 41-48.
A. van den Berg, Neue Desintegrationstechnik Pleurymaxx., Woperis: Doetichem, Netherlands, 2013.
P.N. Patil, P.R. Gogate, L. Csoka, A. Dregelyi-Kiss, and M. Horvath, "Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation", Ultrason. Sonochem., vol. 30, pp. 79-86, 2016. []. [PMID: 26639635].
R.T. Hilares, L. Ramos, S. Silvério da Silva, G. Dragone, S.I. Mussatto, and J.C. dos Santos, "Hydrodynamic cavitation as a strategy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment", Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., vol. 38, pp. 483-493, 2017. [PMID: 29233030].
M. Dubicki, M. Zieliński, M. Dębowski, and J. Gołaszewski, The efficiency of conversion of cattle manure into biogas by the use of chosen physical pretreatment methods at the pilot scale.Olsztyn, Center of renewable energy Research University of Warmia and Mazury, , 2015, pp. 1-24
M. Estevez, R. Linjordet, and J. Morken, Organic loading rate effect on anaerobic digestion: Case study on co-digestion of lignocellulosic pre-treated material with cow manure.Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway, , 2012, pp 1-12.
H. Dauser, Economic Considerations of the Straw Preparation Agents de Economizer Technology using the example of biogas plants in the UK. in R. Heizel ed. Tagungsband Biogas aus Stroh Hildesheim, ProFair consult+ Project GmbH,, 2017, pp 69-72.
S. Ford, Biogassystems Economizer., Biogas Systems: Parndorf, Austria, 2017, pp. 1-30.
W. Stinner, H. Wedwitschka, A. Zehnsdorf, L. Möller, V. Brummer, C. Herbes, M. Roehl, and S. Roth, Water plants as a substrate for biogas plants - practice-oriented silage and fermentation., Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung: Leipzig, 2017, pp. 1-23.
C. Wetter, E. Brügging, and D. Baumkötter, Mechanical and enzymatic pretreatment of organic residues to optimize the gas yield., Fachhochschule Münster: Germany, 2013, pp. 1-20.
V. Moset, C.A.N. de Xavier, and H.B. Møller, "Optimization of methane yield by using straw briquettes- influence of additives and mold size", Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 74, pp. 925-932, 2015. [].
N. Engler, Trace element concentrations and biological activity in NaWaRo biogas fermenters. Rostock, Dissertation Universität Rostock,, 2015, pp. 1-105.
" Ann. "Use of trace element mixtures in biogas plants - Latest research results and application recommendations", Schwandorf, Schmack Biogas,", pp 1-30
T. Schmidt, Biogas production from residues of biofuel production-Influence of trace elements on the increase of the organic space load., German Biomass Research Center: Leipzig, Germany, 2013.
A. Loewen, A. Feher, E. Mathies, and T. Fritz, Development and practice-oriented assessment of a method for studying the bioavailability of trace elements for biogas formation by means of sequential extraction..Göttingen, HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts College, , 2014, pp. 1-19.
P. Scherer, and S. Off, Development of a biogas process for hygienic fermentation., College for Applied Sciences: Hamburg, Germany, 2018.
X. Wang, X. Lu, F. Li, and G. Yang, "Effects of temperature and carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio on the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure, chicken manure and rice straw: Focusing on ammonia inhibition", PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 5, .e97265 2014 []. [PMID: 24817003].
"Md.A. Rahman, H.B. Møller, C.K. Saha, M. Alam, R. Wahid and L. Feng, “Optimal ratio for anaerobic co-digestion of poultry droppings and lignocellulosic-rich substrates for enhanced biogas production", Energy Sustain. Dev., vol. 39, pp. 59-66, 2017.
R.P. Beyaert, and R.P. Voroney, "Estimation of decay constants for crop residues measured over 15 years in conventional and reduced tillage systems in a coarse-textured soil in southern Ontario", Can. J. Soil Sci., vol. 91, pp. 985-995, 2011. [].
J.G. Conijn, and J.P. Lesschen, Soil organic matter in the Netherlands., WUR: Wageningen, Netherlands, 2015.
J. Verloop, G.J. Hilhorst, A.A. Pronk, L.B. Šebek, H. van Keulen, B.H. Janssen, and M.K. Van Ittersum, "Organic matter dynamics in an intensive dairy production system on a Dutch Spodosol", Geoderma, vol. 237-238, pp. 159-167, 2015.
Z. van der Vegte, Bodemkwaliteit neemt niet af op De Marke..Wageningen, Wageningen University and Research, , 2016, pp. 1-4
T. Ebertseder, C. Engels, J. Heyn, K.J. Hülsbergen, K. Isermann, H. Kolbe, G. Leithold, J. Reinhold, H. Schmid, K. Schweitzer, M. Willms, and J. Zimmer, “Humusbilanzierung Eine Methode zur Analyse und Bewertung der Humusversorgung von Ackerland”, Speyer, Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalten (VDLUFA)., Speyer, 2014, pp. 1-21.
K. Boesgaard, Business prospect Biogas plants in Denmark., Lyngby: Gasvitae, 2018, pp. 1-8.
W. Stinner, T. Schmalfuss, H. Wedwitschka, D. Gllegos, V. Denysenko, and A. Deuker, How economically is straw fermentation up to date?. in R. Heizel ed. Tagungsband Biogas aus Stroh Hildesheim, ProFair consult+ Project GmbH, , 2017, pp. 19-24
A. Nolan, K. McDonnell, and G. Devlin, Economic analysis of manufacturing costs of pellet production in the republic of ireland using non-woody biomass, 2010. Open Renewable Energy J., Vol. 3, No. 2010, p. 1-11, 2010
W. Żarski, Economic aspects of production of fuel briquette from agro biomass., University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz: Poland, 2012.
D. Kwaśniewski, and M. Kuboń, "Economic effectiveness of straw pellets production", Agric. Eng., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 147-155, 2016.
M. Schindler, Getreidestroh verkaufen oder einarbeiten., Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen: Hanover, Germany, 2014.
M. Schindler, and K. Krem, So rentabel ist der Strohverkauf. Agrarheute. July 2016 Hannover Germany, 2016
W. Haagsma, Plant voedt de bodem - groenbemesters onmisbaar., Wageningen University and Research: Wageningen, Netherlands, 2017.
H.B. Møller, and M.M. Hansen, "Briquettes of straw and dry grass can double gas production", FIB Res. Biol., vol. 11, no. 47, pp. 3-6, 2014.
A. Sherrard, Breaking the straw to biogas conundrum. Bioenergy International, June 2016.
J. Fink, Anaerobic Digestion of High Solid Material like Farm Yard Manure., Xergi, Støvring- Danmark, 2013.
A. Trivedi, A.R. Verma, S. Kaur, B. Jha, V. Vijay, R. Chandra, V.K. Vijay, P.M.V. Subbarao, R. Tiwari, P. Hariprasad, and R. Prasad, Sustainable bio-energy production models for eradicating open field burning of paddy straw in Punjab, India. Energy, Vol. 127, 310e317, 2017.
" Ann. “Reactor tanks for biogas” Assentoft, Randers, Denmark, ", 2012
S. Hruschka, The straws in the methanisation., RCUMA Ouest: Rennes, France, 2014.
D. Belaid, Weed control Collect chaff and weed seeds. A clever technique within the reach of a craftsman., Collection Brochures Agronomiques: Belaid, France, 2016.
C. Glasner, C. Andreasen, C. Vieregge, A. Dikiy, J. Fenselau, Z. Bitarafan, and E. Shumilina, "Adaptions of harvesting methods and concepts in order to reduce weeds on agricultural fields and to gain potentially a so far unexploited biomass feedstock", 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 2018 Copenhagen, Denmark
"Ann. "The value of cattle slurry", Grondig, Nijkerk, Netherlands, ", 2018
"Ann. "The value of pig slurry", Grondig, Nijkerk, Netherlands,", 2018
E. de Snoo, “Manure prices have not been this low in two years”, Farmers business DCA multimedia., Lelystad: Netherlands, 2017.
J. de Haan, Organic matter worth more than you think., Wageningen University and Research: Wageningen, Netherlands, 2015.
" Ann, "Land- en Tuinbouw 2017, waarde van compost", Attero, Apeldoorn, Netherlands, ", 2017
N. Lambers-Jukema, Desk study “Manure processing techniques”., Projects LTO-Noord: Zwolle, Netherlands, 2013.
D. Thrän, D. Peetz, and K. Schaubach, Global Wood Pellet Industry and Trade Study 2017.
R.W. Melse, P. Hoeksma, and N.W.M. Ogink, Technical upper limits of P2O5 content of thick fraction after separation of slurry with decanter centrifuge: Exploratory study - January version 2017. Rapport 1100.
J. Schröder, F. de Buisonjé, G. Kasper, N. Verdoes, and K. Verloop, Manure separation: Relationships between technology, costs and agricultural value Plant research International, Wageningen, Netherlands, . 2009

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [34 - 43]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/2405463103666190620142847

Article Metrics

PDF: 7