Src homolog and collagen homolog (Shc) proteins have been identified as adapter proteins associated with cell surface receptors and shown to play important roles in signaling and disease. Shcbp1 acts as Shc SH2-domain binding protein 1 and is involved in the regulation of signaling pathways, such as FGF, NF-κB, MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, TGF-β1/Smad and β-catenin signaling. Shcbp1 participates in T cell development, the regulation of downstream signal transduction pathways, and cytokinesis during mitosis and meiosis. In addition, Shcbp1 has been demonstrated to correlate with Burkitt-like lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, gliomas, synovial sarcoma, human hepatocellular carcinoma and other diseases. Shcbp1 may play an important role in tumorigenesis and progression. Accordingly, recent studies are reviewed herein to discuss and interpret the role of Shcbp1 in normal cell proliferation and differentiation, tumorigenesis and progression, as well as its interactions with proteins.