Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Novel Standardized Platelet Rich Plasma Releasates on Knee Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes and Cartilage in vitro

Author(s): Lucía Gato-Calvo, Tamara Hermida-Gómez, Cristina R. Romero, Elena F. Burguera*, Francisco J. Blanco.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 20 , Issue 11 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a potential treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), but composition heterogeneity hampers comparison among studies, with the result that definite conclusions on its efficacy have not been reached.

Objectives: 1) To develop a novel methodology to prepare a series of standardized PRP releasates (PRP-Rs) with known absolute platelet concentrations, and 2) To evaluate the influence of this standardization parameter on the anti-inflammatory properties of these PRP-Rs in an in vitro and an ex vivo model of OA.

Methods: A series of PRPs was prepared using the absolute platelet concentration as the standardization parameter. Doses of platelets ranged from 0% (platelet poor plasma, PPP) to 1.5·105 platelets/µl. PRPs were then activated with CaCl2 to obtain releasates (PRP-R). Chondrocytes were stimulated with 10% of each PRP-R in serum-free culture medium for 72 h to assess proliferation and viability. Cells were co-stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β (5 ng/ml) and 10% of each PRP-R for 48 h to determine the effects on gene expression, secretion and intra-cellular content of common markers associated with inflammation, catabolism and oxidative stress in OA. OA cartilage explants were co-stimulated with IL-1β (5 ng/ml) and 10% of either PRP-R with 0.75·105 platelets/µl or PRP-R with 1.5·105 platelets/µl for 21 days to assess matrix inflammatory degradation.

Results: Chondrocyte viability was not affected, and proliferation was dose-dependently increased. The gene expression of all pro-inflammatory mediators was significantly and dose-independently reduced, except for that of IL-1β and IL-8. Immunoblotting corroborated this effect for inducible NO synthase (NOS2). Secreted matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) was reduced to almost basal levels by the PRP-R from PPP. Increasing platelet dosage led to progressive loss to this anti-catabolic ability. Safranin O and toluidine blue stains supported the beneficial effect of low platelet dosage on cartilage matrix preservation.

Conclusion: We have developed a methodology to prepare PRP releasates using the absolute platelet concentration as the standardization parameter. Using this approach, the composition of the resulting PRP derived product is independent of the donor initial basal platelet count, thereby allowing the evaluation of its effects objectively and reproducibly. In our OA models, PRP-Rs showed antiinflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-catabolic properties. Platelet enrichment could favor chondrocyte proliferation but is not necessary for the above effects and could even be counter-productive.

Keywords: Platelet rich plasma, standardization, osteoarthritis, inflammation, knee, chondrocytes.

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VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 11
Year: 2019
Page: [920 - 933]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1389201020666190619111118
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