High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) mainly belongs to the non-histone DNA-binding protein.
It has been studied as a nuclear protein that is present in eukaryotic cells. From the HMG family,
HMGB1 protein has been focused particularly for its pivotal role in several pathologies. HMGB-1 is
considered as an essential facilitator in diseases such as sepsis, collagen disease, atherosclerosis, cancers,
arthritis, acute lung injury, epilepsy, myocardial infarction, and local and systemic inflammation.
Modulation of HMGB1 levels in the human body provides a way in the management of these diseases.
Various strategies, such as HMGB1-receptor antagonists, inhibitors of its signalling pathway, antibodies,
RNA inhibitors, vagus nerve stimulation etc. have been used to inhibit expression, release or activity
of HMGB1. This review encompasses the role of HMGB1 in various pathologies and discusses
its therapeutic potential in these pathologies.