Viral myocarditis is a cardiac disease caused by Group B Coxsackie virus of Enterovirus genus in the Picorna viridae family. It causes heart failure in children, young and adults. Ten Percent (10%) of acute heart failure and 12% of sudden deaths in young and adults who are less than 40 years is due to this viral myocarditis. If treatment action is not taken earlier, the viral disease can develop into chronic myocarditis and Dilated Cardiomyopathy which lead to congestive heart failure. And these eventually result in a reduced cardiac function which finally brings the victim to death. The only treatment option of the disease is heart transplantation once the acute stage of disease develop to chronic and Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Currently, there is limitation in daily clinical treatments and even some available treatment options are an ineffective. Therefore, focusing on search for treatment options through investigation is an imperative. Recent studies have reported that biological molecules show promising role. But their mechanism of the pathogenesis is still unclear. Detailed study on identifying the role of biological molecules involved in Coxsackie B3 virus induced myocarditis and their mechanisms of pathogenesis; compiling and disseminating the findings of the investigation to the scientific communities contribute one step forward to the solution. Therefore, this review is aimed at compiling information from findings of current studies on the potential therapeutic role of micro RNA, cytokines and chemokines on the mechanism of pathogenesis of Coxsackie virus B3- induced myocarditis to give brief information for scholars to conduct a detailed study in the area.
Keywords: CVB3, Viral myocarditis, Dilated Cardiomyopathy, micro RNA, Cytokines, Chemokines
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