Objective: Thyroid Hormones (TH) are essential for normal growth, development and continued
optimal function of most of the body organs including the eye. TH signaling plays a central role
in the regulation of retinal development and maturation. Deficiency in TH during fetal and early postnatal
development impairs growth of the eye and proliferation of all retinal cell types. The present
article reviews the most important topics of the different derangements in thyroid function and structure
and its relation with eye diseases.
Methods: A literature search strategy was conducted for all English-language literature.
Results: From a clinical practice viewpoint, it should be mentioned that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism
are accompanied by ocular diseases i.e. thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, diabetic
retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Although the orbit and globe are not common sites
for metastatic thyroid cancers, orbital metastasis may be the primary clinical manifestation of thyroid
carcinoma. Finally, some medications as amiodarone may be accompanied by both thyroid dysfunction
and adverse ocular events.
Conclusion: Thyroid disorders and eye diseases are interrelated through several mechanisms thus,
awareness of this relation has a great impact on early diagnosis and treatment.