Artificial blood is an innovative concept of transfusion medicine where specifically designed compounds perform the task of transport and delivery of oxygen in the body to replace this function of allogenic human blood transfusion. Several molecules have been developed in the past few decades to achieve this objective and continous refinements are being continuously made in the quest of the ideal blood substitute. Currently, available technology manufactures artificial blood from haemoglobin obtained from outdated human/bovine blood (Haemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers) or utilizing Perfluorocarbons. These synthetic blood substitutes are advantageous in that they do not require compatibility testing, are free from blood borne infections, have prolonged shelf life and do not require refrigeration. Artificial blood is projected to have a significant impact on the development of medical care in the future. It can complement the current blood products for transfusion and create a stable supply of safe and effective products. It is likely to reduce the requirements of blood transfusions drastically especially in settings of trauma and surgery thereby reducing the reliance on banked donated blood.
Keywords: Anaemia, blood, erythrocytes, haemoglobin, hypersensitivity, liposomes, resuscitation, transfusion.
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