Objective: To report the chemical composition and bioactivity (including antioxidantand antimicrobial activity, hemolytic activities, and cytotoxicity) of flowers essential oil from Matricariachamomillavar. chamomilla(MCCO) for the first time.
Methods: The essential oil was obtained using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Then, the essential oils composition was identified by chromatography methods. DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), β-carotene bleaching (BCB), and ferrous ion chelating ability (FIC) were chosen to evaluate the MCCO antioxidant activity. Disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC) were chosen to investigate antibacterial activity of MCCO. Hemolytic activity of MCCO on red blood cells (RBCs)was evaluated through optical density. MTT method was used to determine the cytotoxicityeffects of MCCO on human cancer cells.
Results: MCCO was dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (59.01%). α-Bisabolone oxide A (35.74%), α-Bisabolol oxide A (19.07%), (Z)-β-Farnesene (6.63%), and Chamazulene (6.46%) was found as the major components of essential oil. The oil represented an acceptable antioxidant activity. For antibacterial activity, MCCO prevented the growth of 6 out of 7 selected microorganisms. MCCO was just inactive against Staphylococcus coagulase. The low hemolytic rate (below 1.5%) of MCCO on RBCs proposed its safety.
Conclusions: An oxygenated sesquiterpene namely α-bisabolone oxide A was recognized as the main compound of MCCO. The oil can be considered as a strong antibacterial agent as well as an antioxidant. The safety of MCCO as a food additive or other uses was suggested by hemolysis results. MCCO was identified as a weak agent in the cytotoxicity assay.