Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) as a Cause of Hospitalization at a Government Hospital in Saudi Arabia: A Prospective Observational Study

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Author(s): Nouf Alayed*, Bushra Alkhalifah, Munirah Alharbi, Naief Alwohaibi , Maryam Farooqui.

Journal Name: Current Drug Safety

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Background: ADRs represent a substantial burden on health care resources worldwide and is considered one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality which significantly affects hospitalization rates. However, ADR related hospital admissions are not well explored in Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The current study aims to evaluate ADR-related admissions at King Saud Hospital, Unaizah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

Method: A prospective, observational study was conducted at King Saud Hospital Unaizah . Over a period of 6 months, patients above 12 years of age who visited the Emergency Department (ED) with an ADR were included in this study. The investigators collected patient data by reviewing the patient's medical records and the ED records for admission. The Naranjo algorithm was used to assess the causality of the suspected ADR, and Hartwig’s Severity Assessment Scale was used to assess the severity of the ADR.

Results: Out of 4739 admissions to the wards, 38 (0.801%) were related to an ADR. The majority of patients were male (52.6%), with a mean age of ± 49.08 years. The total length of hospital stay was 565 days with a mean of ± 14.87 days. The causality assessment shows that 35 (92.1%) cases were probable ADRs, whereas 3 (7.9%) cases were possible ADRs. Moreover, the severity assessment showed that 6 (15.1%) cases were mild, and 27 (71.1%) and 5 (13.2%) cases were moderate and severe, respectively. In regard to the outcome of patients, most patients recovered after the ADR, and 2 ADRs resulted in the death of the patient.

Conclusion: Our study shows that ADRs as a cause of hospitalization in Qassim population are considerably low. However, ADRs may contribute to morbidity and mortality and result in a considerable financial burden.

Keywords: Adverse drug reactions, ADR monitoring, hospitalization, Saudi Arabia, Prevalence, Hospitalization

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1574886314666190520105330