A variety of processes were reported for efficient removing of heavy metal from wastewater, including but not limited to ion exchange, reverse osmosis, membrane filtration, flotation, coagulation, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, electrochemical treatments, evaporation, oxidation, adsorption, and biosorption. Among the aforementioned techniques, adsorption/ion exchange has been known as a most important method for removing heavy metal ions and organic pollutants due to great removal performance, simple and easy process, cost-effectiveness and the considerable choice of adsorbent materials.
Nanotechnology and its applications have been developed in most branches of science and technology. The extensive studies have been conducted to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater by preparation and applications various nanomaterials. Nanomaterials offer advantages in comparison to other materials including an extremely high specific surface area, low-temperature modification, short intraparticle diffusion distance, numerous associated sorption sites, tunable surface chemistry, and pore size. In order to evaluate an adsorbent, two key parameters are the adsorption capacity and the desorption property. The adsorption parameters including the absorbent loading, pH, temperature, concentration of heavy metal ion, ionic strength, and competition among metal ions are often studied and optimized.
There have been several reviews on the application of Graphene (G), Graphene Oxide (GO) in water treatment. In this minireview, we attempted to summarize the recent research advances in water treatment and remediation process by graphene-based materials and provide an intensive knowledge in the removal of pollutants in batch and flow systems. Finally, future applicability perspectives are offered to encourage more interesting developments in this promising field. This minireview does not include patent literature.