Background: Preclinical experimental models historically play a critical role in the exploration
and characterization of disease pathophysiology. Further, these in-vivo and in-vitro preclinical experiments
help in target identification, evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and validation of treatments.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifaceted metabolic disorder of multidimensional aetiologies
with the cardinal feature of chronic hyperglycemia. To avoid or minimize late complications of
diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its
chronic manifestations, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness
of the current therapies.
Methods: The study included electronic databases such as Pubmed, Web of Science and Scopus. The
datasets were searched for entries of studies up to June, 2018.
Results: A large number of in-vivo and in-vitro models have been presented for evaluating the mechanism
of anti-hyperglycaemic effect of drugs in hormone-, chemically-, pathogen-induced animal models
of diabetes mellitus. The advantages and limitations of each model have also been addressed in this
Conclusion: This review encompasses the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms
associated with diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and
predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering
new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. This review may further
contribute to discover a novel drug to treat diabetes more efficaciously with minimum or no side effects.
Furthermore, it also highlights ongoing research and considers the future perspectives in the field