Neuropeptides in Alzheimer’s disease: An update

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Petrella Carla, Di Certo Maria Grazia, Barbato Christian, Gabanella Francesca, Ralli Massimo, Greco Antonio, Possenti Roberta, Severini Cinzia*.

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

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Neuropeptides are small proteins broadly expressed throughout the central nervous system, which act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neuroregulators. Growing evidence has demonstrated the involvement of many neuropeptides in both neurophysiological functions and neuropathological conditions, among which Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The role exerted by neuropeptides in AD is endorsed by the evidence that they are mainly neuroprotective and widely distributed in brain areas responsible for learning and memory processes. Confirming this point, it has been demonstrated that numerous neuropeptide-containing neurons are pathologically altered in brain areas of both AD patients and AD animal models. Furthermore, the levels of various neuropeptides have been found altered in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of AD patients, getting insights into their potential role in the pathophysiology of AD and offering the possibility to identify novel additional biomarkers for this pathology. We summarized available information about brain distribution, neuroprotective and cognitive functions of some neuropeptides involved in AD. Main focus of the current review was directed towards the description of clinical data reporting alterations in neuropeptides content in both AD patients and AD pre- clinical animal models. In particular, we explored the involvement in AD of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), bradykinin and chromogranin/secretogranin family, discussing their potential role as biomarker or therapeutic target, leaving the dissertation of other neuropeptides to previous reviews.

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(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1567205016666190503152555
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