Background: The drug formulations used to control mosquito vectors and helminth infections have resulted in the development of resistance, and negative impact on non-target organisms and environment
Objective: Plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs) using aqueous fruit peel extract of M. charantia, applications of P-AgNPs for helminthicidal activity against Indian earthworms (P. posthuma) and larvicidal activity against larvae of mosquito A. albopictus and A. aegypti.
Method: Aqueous fruit peel extract of Momordica charantia was used to reduce silver ions to silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs). UV-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy, X- ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, characterized synthesized P-AgNPs. The motility and survival rate of the worms were recorded for the helminthicidal activity. Percent mortality of larvae of A. albopictus and A. aegypti was recorded for larvicidal activity.
Results: The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of P-AgNPs showed a strong surface plasmon absorption band in the visible region with a maximum absorption at 445 nm indicating synthesis of silver nanoparticles by addition of aqueous fruit peel extract. The XRD spectrum of P-AgNPs showed Bragg's reflection peaks 2θ value characteristics for the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure of silver. The sharp absorption peak in FTIR at 1659 cm-1 assigned to C=O stretching vibration in carbonyl compounds represents terpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols in corona of P-AgNPs. A 2 mg/mL of P-AgNPs. The concentration aqueous extract and P-AgNPs showed complete death of worms (the morphological alteration/coiling of body). A 20 ppm concentration of P-AgNPs showed 85% mortality in larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. Aegypti. P-AgNPs were non-toxic at low concentrations.
Conclusion: The aqueous extracts played dual role as reducing and capping agent during the biosynthesis of AgNPs as evident through FTIR and XRD results. The surface reactivity facilitated by biomolecule corona attached to silver nanoparticles can further help to functionalize of AgNPs in various pharmaceuticals, biomedicals, and environmental applications.