Legume proteins are precursors of bioactive components, such as peptides. In the present paper, different types of legume as sources of bioactive peptides and hydrolysates are considered and discussed based on their anti-inflammatory effect. Peptides with anti-inflammatory activity were included from in vitro and in vivo studies. Current strategies for obtaining bioactive peptides, as well as their structure and impact on health, were also reviewed. It was discovered that peptides derived from legume protein, mainly soybean and bean, can regulate several inflammatory markers, which include prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), cytokines, and chemokines. So far, lunasin, VPY and γ-glutamyl peptides has been identified with anti-inflammatory activity but their mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, it is necessary to gather more information about hydrolysates containing peptides and single peptides with anti-inflammatory activity. Considering the wide diversity, legume may be promising components to produce peptides efficient to ameliorate inflammatory disorders.