Background: Utilization of macroalgae have gained much attention in the field of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, food and bioenergy. Macroalgae has been widely consumed in Asian countries as a food from ancient days and proved that it has potential bioactive compounds which is responsible to it nutritional properties. Macroalgae consist of diverse range of bioactive compounds including proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides etc. Polysaccharides from macroalgae have been utilized in food industries as a gelling agents and drug excipient in pharmaceutical industries owing it biocompatible and gel forming property. Exploration of macroalgae derived polysaccharides in biomedical applications is limited.
Method: In the current review, we have provided an information of three different sulfated polysaccharides such as carrageenan, fucoidan and ulvan and its isolation procedure (enzymatic precipitation, microwave assisted method, and enzymatic hydrolysis method), structural details, and its biomedical applications exclusively bone tissue repair and regeneration.
Results: From the scientific results on sulfated polysaccharides from macroalge, we conclude that sulfated polysaccharides have exceptional properties in terms of hydrogel forming ability, scaffold formation, and mimic the extracellular matrix, increases alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhance biomineralization ability and stem cell differentiation for bone tissue regeneration.
Conclusion: Overall, sulfated polysaccharides from macroalgae will be promising biomaterial in bone tissue repair and regeneration.