Funk LM, Jolles SA, Voils CI. Obesity as a disease: has the AMA resolution had an impact on how physicians view obesity? Surg Obes Relat Dis 2016; 12: 1431-5.
Kivimäki M, Kuosma E, Ferrie JE, et al. Overweight, obesity, and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity: Pooled analysis of individual-level data for 120 813 adults from 16 cohort studies from the USA and Europe. Lancet Public Health 2017; 2: e277-85.
Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67: 220-9.
Andersen JR, Aasprang A, Bergsholm P, Sletteskog N, Vĺge V, Natvig GK. Anxiety and depression in association with morbid obesity: changes with improved physical health after duodenal switch. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010; 8: 52.
Otero TM, Barker LA. The Frontal Lobes and Executive Functioning. In: Handbook of Executive Functioning. Goldstein S, Naglieri J, Eds. New York: Springer. 2014; pp. 29-45.
Funahashi S, Andreau JM. Prefrontal cortex and neural mechanisms of executive function. J Physiol Paris 2013; 107: 471-82.
Collins A, Koechlin E. Reasoning, learning, and creativity: frontal lobe function and human decision-making. PLoS Biol 2010; 10e1001293
Diamond A. Executive functions. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2013; 64: 135-68.
Bocarsly ME, Fasolino M, Kane GA, et al. Obesity diminishes synaptic markers, alters microglial morphology, and impairs cognitive function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015; 112: 15731-6.
Smith E, Hay P, Campbell L, Trollor JN. A review of the association between obesity and cognitive function across the lifespan: implications for novel approaches to prevention and treatment. Obes Rev 2011; 12: 740-55.
Gunstad J, Lhotsky A, Wendell CR, Ferrucci L, Zonderman AB. Longitudinal examination of obesity and cognitive function: results from the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Neuroepidemiology 2010; 34: 222-9.
Coppin G, Nolan-Poupart S, Jones-Gotman M, Small DM. Working memory and reward association learning impairments in obesity. Neuropsychologia 2014; 65L: 146-55.
Stinson EJ, Krakoff J, Gluck ME. Depressive symptoms and poorer performance on the Stroop Task are associated with weight gain. Physiol Behav 2018; 186: 25-30.
Stice E, Yokum S, Blum K, Bohon C. Weight gain is associated with reduced striatal response to palatable food. J Neurosci 2010; 30: 13105-9.
Wang X, Zhong P, Gu Z, Yan Z. Regulation of NMDA receptors by dopamine D4 signaling in prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 2003; 23: 9852-61.
Bieliński M, Jaracz M, Lesiewska N, et al. Association between COMT Val158Met and DAT1 polymorphisms and depressive symptoms in the obese population. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2017; 13: 2221-9.
Sikora M, Gese A, Czypicki R, et al. Correlations between polymorphisms in genes coding elements of dopaminergic pathways and body mass index in overweight and obese women. Endokrynol Pol 2013; 64: 101-7.
Bourassa K, Sbarra DA. Body mass and cognitive decline are indirectly associated via inflammation among aging adults. Brain Behav Immun 2017; 60: 63-70.
Lasselin J, Magne E, Beau C, et al. Low grade inflammation is a major contributor of impaired attentional set shifting in obese subjects. Brain Behav Immun 2016; 58: 63-8.
Solas M, Milagro FI, Ramírez MJ, Martínez JA. Inflammation and gut-brain axis link obesity to cognitive dysfunction: plausible pharmacological interventions. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2017; 37: 87-92.
Appelhans BM. Neurobehavioral inhibition of reward-driven feeding: implications for dieting and obesity. Obesity 2009; 17: 640-7.
Baik JH. Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors. Front Neural Circuits 2013; 7: 152.
Birtwistle J, Baldwin D. Role of dopamine in schizophrenia and Parkinson's diseaseBr J Nurs 1998. 12; 7(14): 832-41
an der Voet M, Harich B, Franke B, Schenck A. ADHD-associated dopamine transporter, latrophilin and neurofibromin share a dopamine-related locomotor signature in Drosophila. Mol Psychiatry 2016; 21: 565-73.
Chong TT, Husain M. The role of dopamine in the pathophysiology and treatment of apathy. Prog Brain Res 2016; 229: 389-426.
Puig MV, Antzoulatos EG, Miller EK. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory. Neuroscience 2014; 12(282): 217-29.
Lammel S, Lim BK, Malenka RC. Reward and aversion in a heterogeneous midbrain dopamine system. Neuropharmacology 2014; 76: 351-9.
Chung SJ, Yoo HS, Oh JS, et al. Effect of striatal dopamine depletion on cognition in de novo Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2018; 51: 43-8.
Sánchez-Cubillo I, Periáñez JA, Adrover-Roig D, et al. Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2009; 15: 438-50.
Ariza M, Garolera M, Jurado MA, et al. Dopamine genes (DRD2/ANKK1-TaqA1 and DRD4-7R) and executive function: their interaction with obesity. PLoS One 2012; 7e41482
Drewe EA. The effect of type and area of brain lesion on Wisconsin card sorting test performance. Cortex 1974; 10: 159-70.
Teubner-Rhodes S, Vaden KI, Dubno JR, Eckert MA. Cognitive persistence: Development and validation of a novel measure from the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychologia 2017; 102: 95-108.
Lezak MD, Howieson DB, Loring DW. Neuropsychological assessment. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2004.
Strauss E, Sherman EMS, Spreen O. A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2006.
Nyhus E, Barceló F. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the cognitive assessment of prefrontal executive functions: a critical update. Brain Cogn 2009; 71: 437-51.
Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983; 67: 968-77.
Bieliński M, Lesiewska N, Jaracz M, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism In Centex of executive functions and working memory In obese patients. Neuropsychiatry 2018; 18: 111-8.
Lahiri DK, Schnabel B. DNA isolation by a rapid method from human blood samples: effects of MgCl2, EDTA, storage time, and temperature on DNA yield and quality. Biochem Genet 1993; 31: 321-8.
Nieoullon A. Dopamine and the regulation of cognition and attention. Prog Neurobiol 2002; 67: 53-83.
Previc FH. Dopamine and the origins of human intelligence. Brain Cogn 1996; 41: 299-350.
Floresco SB. The nucleus accumbens: an interface between cognition, emotion, and action. Annu Rev Psychol 2015; 66: 25-52.
Fagundo AB, de la Torre R, Jiménez-Murcia S, et al. Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity. PLoS One 2012; 7e43382
Roberts ME, Tchanturia K, Stahl D, Southgate L, Treasure J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of set-shifting ability in eating disorders. Psychol Med 2007; 37: 1075-84.
Cepeda NJ, Cepeda ML, Kramer AF. Task switching and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2000; 28: 213-26.
Reinert KR, Po’e EK, Barkin SL. The relationship between executive function and obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. J Obes 2013.820956
Appelhans BM, Woolf K, Pagoto SL, Schneider KL, Whited MC, Liebman R. Inhibiting food reward: delay discounting, food reward sensitivity, and palatable food intake in overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011; 19: 2175-82.
Rolls ET. The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Brain Cogn 2004; 55: 11-29.
Nejati V, Salehinejad MA, Nitsche MA, Najian A, Javadi AH. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves executive dysfunctions in ADHD: Implications for inhibitory control, interference control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. J Atten Disord 2017; 11087054717730611
Batterink L, Yokum S, Stice E. Body mass correlates inversely with inhibitory control in response to food among adolescent girls: an fMRI study. Neuroimage 2010; 52: 1696-703.
Hänninen T, Hallikainen M, Koivisto K, et al. Decline of frontal lobe functions in subjects with age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1997; 48: 148-53.
Karoum F, Chrapusta SJ, Egan MF. 3-Methoxytyramine is the major metabolite of released dopamine in the rat frontal cortex: reassessment of the effects of antipsychotics on the dynamics of dopamine release and metabolism in the frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and striatum by a simple two pool model. J Neurochem 1994; 63: 972-9.
Meyer-Lindenberg A, Weinberger DR. Intermediate phenotypes and genetic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Nat Rev Neurosci 2006; 7: 818-27.
Chen J, Lipska BK, Halim N, et al. Functional analysis of genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): effects on mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in postmortem human brain. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 75: 807-21.
Lotta T, Vidgren J, Tilgmann C, et al. Kinetics of human soluble and membrane-bound catechol O-methyltransferase: a revised mechanism and description of the thermolabile variant of the enzyme. Biochemistry 1995; 34: 4202-10.
Barnett JH, Jones PB, Robbins TW, Müller U. Effects of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on executive function: a meta-analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test in schizophrenia and healthy controls. Mol Psychiatry 2007; 12: 502-9.
Caldú X, Vendrell P, Bartrés-Faz D. Clemente, et al.Impact of the COMT Val108/158 Met and DAT genotypes on prefrontal function in healthy subjects. Neuroimage 2007; 37: 1437-44.
Bellander M, Bäckman L, Liu T, et al. Lower baseline performance but greater plasticity of working memory for carriers of the val allele of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Neuropsychology 2015; 29: 247-54.
Hupfeld KE, Vaillancourt DE, Seidler RD. Genetic markers of dopaminergic transmission predict performance for older males but not females. Neurobiol Aging 2018; 1(66): 180-e11.
Cools R, D’Esposito M. Inverted-U-shaped dopamine actions on human working memory and cognitive control. Biol Psychiatry 2011; 69: e113-25.
Volkow ND, Gur RC, Wang GJ, et al. Association between decline in brain dopamine activity with age and cognitive and motor impairment in healthy individuals. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 344-9.
Lindenberger U, Nagel IE, Chicherio C, Li SC, Heekeren HR, Bäckman L. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning. Front Neurosci 2008; 2: 234-44.
Nagel IE, Chicherio C, Li SC, et al. Human aging magnifies genetic effects on executive functioning and working memory. Front Hum Neurosci 2008; 2: 1.
Papaleo F, Erickson L, Liu G, Chen J, Weinberger DR. Effects of sex and COMT genotype on environmentally modulated cognitive control in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012; 109: 20160-5.
Laatikainen LM, Sharp T, Harrison PJ, Tunbridge EM. Sexually dimorphic effects of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibition on dopamine metabolism in multiple brain regions. PLoS One 2013; 8e61839
Tunbridge EM, Harrison PJ. Importance of the COMT gene for sex differences in brain function and predisposition to psychiatric disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2011; 8: 119-40.
Hall H, Halldin C, Guilloteau D, et al. Visualization of the dopamine transporter in the human brain postmortem with the new selective ligand [125I]PE2I. Neuroimage 1999; 9: 108-16.
Vandenbergh DJ, Persico AM, Hawkins AL, et al. Human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) maps to chromosome 5p15.3 and displays a VNTR. Genomics 1992; 14: 1104-6.
Mill J, Asherson P, Browes C, D’Souza U, Craig I. Expression of the dopamine transporter gene is regulated by the 3′ UTR VNTR: evidence from brain and lymphocytes using quantitative RT-PCR. Am J Med Genet 2002; 114: 975-9.
Brookes KJ, Neale BM, Sugden K, Khan N, Asherson P, D’Souza UM. Relationship between VNTR polymorphisms of the human dopamine transporter gene and expression in post-mortem midbrain tissue. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2007; 144B: 1070-8.
Barceló F, Knight RT. Both random and perseverative errors underlie WCST deficits in prefrontal patients. Neuropsychologia 2002; 40: 349-56.
Barceló F. Electrophysiological evidence of two different types of error in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuroreport 1999; 10: 1299-303.
Fagundo AB, Fernández-Aranda F, de la Torre R, et al. Dopamine DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A and DAT1 VNTR polymorphisms are associated with a cognitive flexibility profile in pathological gamblers. J Psychopharmacol 2014; 28: 1170-7.
Rybakowski JK, Borkowska A, Czerski PM, et al. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in schizophrenia and genes of dopaminergic inactivation (COMT, DAT, NET). Psychiatry Res 2006; 143: 13-9.
Hsieh PC, Yeh TL, Lee IH, et al. Correlation between errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the availability of striatal dopamine transporters in healthy volunteers. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2010; 35: 90-4.
Ralph RJ, Paulvus MP, Fumagalli F, Caron MG, Geyer MA. Prepulse inhibition deficits and perseverative motor patterns in dopamine transporter knock-out mice: differential effects of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 305-13.
Yang Y, Shields GS, Guo C, Liu Y. Executive function performance in obesity and overweight individuals: A meta-analysis and review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017; 84: 225-44.
Rietman ML. van der A DL, van Oostrom SH, et al .The Association between BMI and Different Frailty Domains: A U-Shaped Curve? J Nutr Health Aging 2018; 22: 8-15.
Jacobs E, D’Esposito M. Estrogen shapes dopamine-dependent cognitive processes: implications for women’s health. J Neurosci 2011; 31: 5286-93.
Jakob K, Ehrentreich H, Holtfrerich SKC, Reimers L, Diekhof EK. DAT1-genotype and menstrual cycle, but not hormonal contraception, modulate reinforcement Learning: preliminary evidence. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018; 9: 60.
Watson CS, Alyea RA, Cunningham KA, Jeng YJ. Estrogens of multiple classes and their role in mental health disease mechanisms. Int J Womens Health 2010; 2: 153-66.
Defagot MC, Malchiodi EL, Villar MJ, Antonelli MC. Distribution of D4 dopamine receptor in rat brain with sequence specific antibodies. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1997; 45: 1-12.
Primus RJ, Thurkauf A, Xu J, et al. Localization and characterization of dopamine D4 binding sites in rat and human brain by use of the novel D4 receptor-selective ligand [3H]NGD 94-1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 282: 1020-7.
Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus. Hum Genet 1996; 98: 91-101.
Asghari V, Sanyal S, Buchwaldt S, Paterson A, Jovanovic V, Van Tol HH. Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels by different human dopamine D4 receptor variants. J Neurochem 1995; 65: 1157-65.
Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Fowler JS. The role of dopamine in motivation for food in humans: implications for obesity. Expert Opin Ther Targets 2002; 6: 601-9.
Wiłkość M, Hauser J, Tomaszewska M, et al. Influence of dopaminergic and serotoninergic genes on working memory in healthy subjects. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Warsz) 2010; 70: 86-94.
Zhang K, Grady CJ, Tsapakis EM, Andersen SL, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ. Regulation of working memory by dopamine D4 receptor in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29: 1648-55.
Alfimova MV, Golimbet VE, Gritsenko IK, et al. Interaction of dopamine system genes and cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives and in healthy subjects from the general population. Neurosci Behav Physiol 2007; 37: 643-50.
Faraone SV, Doyle AE, Mick E, Biederman J. Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 1052-7.
Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull 1997; 121: 65-94.
Hudec KL, Alderson RM, Patros CH, Lea SE, Tarle SJ, Kasper LJ. Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of executive and non-executive functions. Res Dev Disabil 2015; 45-46: 103-9.
Heinzel S, Dresler T, Baehne CG, et al. COMT x DRD4 epistasis impacts prefrontal cortex function underlying response control. Cereb Cortex 2013; 23: 1453-62.
Lohani S, Martig AK, Deisseroth K, Witten IB, Moghaddam B. Dopamine Modulation of Prefrontal Cortex Activity Is Manifold and Operates at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Scales. Cell Rep 2019; 27: 99-114.
Rogers RD, Andrews TC, Grasby PM, Brooks DJ, Robbins TW. Contrasting cortical and subcortical activations produced by attentional-set shifting and reversal learning in humans. J Cogn Neurosci 2000; 12: 142-62.