Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics:  An Historic-Axiomatic Approach

Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics: An Historic-Axiomatic Approach

This unique textbook presents a novel, axiomatic pedagogical path from classical to quantum physics. Readers are introduced to the description of classical mechanics, which rests on Euler’s and ...
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Quantization of the Free Electromagnetic Field

Pp. 261-268 (8)

Peter Enders

Abstract

In contrast to the string, the free electromagnetic field has not got an extrinsic length parameter. However, the wave number provides an intrinsic length parameter. Energy quanta, hω, emerge only for the transverse field components, for which a potential energy analogously to that of the harmonic oscillator acts. The analog to the longitudinal field modes is the free particle.

Keywords:

Electromagnetic field, Energy quantum, Extrinsic length parameter, Intrinsic length parameter, Longitudinal electromagnetic field, Quantization, Transverse electromagnetic field.

Affiliation:

Taraz State Pedagogical University, Kazakhstan.