Targeted drug delivery, also known as smart drug delivery or active drug delivery, is a subcategory
of nanomedicine. Using this strategy, the medication is delivered into the infected organs in
the patient’s body or to the targeted sites inside the cells. In order to improve therapeutic efficiency and
pharmacokinetic characteristics of the active pharmaceutical agents, conjugation of biomacromolecules
such as proteins, nucleic acids, monoclonal antibodies, aptamers, and nanoparticulate drug carriers,
has been mostly recommended by scientists in the last decades. Several covalent conjugation pathways
are used for biomacromolecules coupling with nanomaterials in nanomedicine including carbodiimides
and “click” mediated reactions, thiol-mediated conjugation, and biotin-avidin interactions.
However, choosing one or a combination of these methods with suitable coupling for application
to advanced drug delivery is essential. This review focuses on new and high impacted published
articles in the field of nanoparticles and biomacromolecules coupling studies, as well as their advantages
Keywords: Nanobiotechnology, biomacromolecule, targeted drug delivery, nanomedicine, chemical coupling, “click” mediated
reactions, carbodiimides, thiol-mediated conjugation, biotin-avidin.
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