Secondary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: Novel Insights

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Katerina Chrysaidou, Athanasia Chainoglou, Vasiliki Karava, John Dotis, Nikoleta Printza, Stella Stabouli*.

Journal Name: Current Hypertension Reviews

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Abstract:

Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, not only in adults, but in youths also, as it is associated with long-term negative health effects. The predominant type of hypertension in children is the secondary hypertension, with the chronic kidney disease being the most common cause, however, nowadays, there is a rising incidence of primary hypertension due to the rising incidence of obesity in children. Although office blood pressure has guided patient management for many years, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides useful information, facilitates the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children and adolescents, by monitoring treatment and evaluation for secondary causes or specific phenotypes of hypertension. In the field of secondary hypertension, there are numerous studies, which have reported a strong association between different determinants of 24-hour blood pressure profile and the underlying cause. In addition, in children with secondary hypertension ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters offer the unique advantage to identify pediatric low- and high-risk children for target organ damage. Novel insights in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including the role of perinatal factors or new cardiovascular biomarkers, such as fibroblast growth factor 23, need to be further evaluated in the near future.

Keywords: Children, Hypertension, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, Chronic Kidney Disease, Prematurity.

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1573402115666190416152820

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