Diet Control in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): Piyaporn Sitkulanan*, Natthananporn Sanguanklin, Sirikhwan Pomjumpa.

Journal Name: Current Women`s Health Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 4 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has significantly increased in the last two decades. Gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM, is a complication that affects both pregnant women and newborn babies. Pregnant women that are diagnosed with GDM are 7 times more likely to be diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus. In addition, infants born by GDM mothers are at higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the future.

Objective: The study aims to review the literature on the diet control in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Results: Controlling blood sugar within the normal range during pregnancy can decrease negative pregnancy outcomes. However, most pregnant women with GDM cannot control their blood sugar within the normal range because of a lack of knowledge and skill in selecting appropriate foods. They also often experience inconsistency in their diet control behavior Most pregnant women worry about gaining too much weight, and most pregnant women with GDM have to learn how to choose their food properly in terms of both nutrients and quantity in order to control their blood sugar levels within the normal range.

Conclusion: Diet control during pregnancy is one way to prevent the negative consequences of GDM for both mothers and infants. The food proportion for pregnant women with gestational diabetes is CHO: PRO: FAT = 50: 20:30 and also to consume an appropriate amount of vitamins and minerals and water each day.

Keywords: Diet control, pregnant women, gestational diabetes, food consumption, hyperglycemia, weight gain in pregnancy.

[1]
Diabetes association of Thailand. The practice of medicine for diabetes 2017. Bangkok: Romyen media. 2017.
[2]
Committee on Practice Bulletins--Obstetrics. Practice Bulletin No. 137: Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol 2013; 122: 406-16.
[3]
IDF diabetes Atlas 8th edition 2017. What is diabetes? Available from. http://www.diabetesatlas.org [Accessed on: Aug 7, 2018].
[4]
Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, et al. Williams obstetrics. 24th (ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill education/medical. 2014.
[5]
Somprasit J, Punpitpaet P, Tharawanit T, Jarasjaroenwitthaya N, Porntisan S. Guidelines for gestational diabetes patient care, Pathumthani: Thammasat University Hospital.
[6]
Feldman RK, Tieu RS, Yasumura L. Gestational diabetes screening: the international association of the diabetes and pregnancy study groups compared with Carpenter-Coustan screening. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 127: 10-7.
[7]
Resnik R, Creasy RK, Iams JD, Lockwood CJ, Moore T, Greene MF. Creasy and Resnik's maternal-fetal medicine: principles and practice. 7th (ed.). Canada: Elsevier health sciences: 2015.
[8]
Moreno-Castilla C, Mauricio D, Hernandez M. Role of medical nutrition therapy in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Curr Diab Rep 2016; 16: 22.
[9]
Blumer I, Hadar E, Hadden DR, et al. Diabetes and pregnancy: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013; 98: 4227-49.
[10]
Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee, Thompson D, Berger H, Feig D, et al. Diabetes. and pregnancy. Can J Diabetes 2013; 37: 168-83.
[11]
Kleinwechter H, Schäfer-Graf U, Bührer C, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care: Practice Guideline of the German Diabetes Association(DDG) and the German Association for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2014; 122: 395-405.
[12]
American Diabetes Association. Executive summary: Standards of medical care in diabetes--2012. Diabetes Care 2012; 35(Suppl. 1): S4-S10.
[13]
Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines; Rasmussen KM, Yaktine AL, editors. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US). 2009.
[14]
Khongsomboonwetch S. Food for diabetes control. In: Ratchatanawin R, Ningsanon T, (Eds.). Knowledge on the subject of diabetes. 3rd ed. Bangkok: Witthayapat 2014; pp. 131-55.
[15]
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2014. Diabetes Care 2014; 37: 14-80.
[16]
Georgoulis M, Kontogianni MD, Yiannakouris N. Mediterranean diet and diabetes: Prevention and treatment. Nutrients 2014; 6: 1406-23.
[17]
Dunkley AJ, Bodicoat DH, Greaves CJ, et al. Diabetes prevention in the real world: effectiveness of pragmatic lifestyle interventions for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and of the impact of adherence to guideline recommendations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2014; 37: 922-33.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2019
Page: [245 - 250]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1573404815666190415123455
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 26
HTML: 3