Background: dietary high fat possibly causes oxidative stress; also it alters pathophysiology of metabolically active myocardial tissues and vascular architecture. Emblica Officinalis is found to be potential antioxidant that counteract oxidative stress and possibly maintain vascular integrity.
Objectives: to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica Officinalis (EEO) on high fat diet (HFD) induced changes in vascular chemistry and histopathology of cardiovascular system in male albino rats.
Materials and methods: Ethanolic extract of Emblica Officinalis (EEO) was prepared and phytochemical analysis was done. Rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as following; group 1- Control (20% fat); group 2 (20% fat+ EEO 100 mg/kg/b w); group 3 (30% fat) and group 4 (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w). Dietary and EEO supplementation were continued for 21 days. Gravimetric and oxidative stress markers like MDA, NOx, antioxidants like Vitamin C and E, and molecular marker (NOS3) were evaluated. Histopathological analysis was done on myocardium and elastic artery along with measurement of coronary arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter. One way ANOVA were done for analysis of data.
Results: high fat diet showed significant increase in MDA, decrease of NO with unaltered NOS3 protein in rats fed with high fat diet, which indicate possible alteration of vascular pathophysiology. Supplementation of EEO showed amelioratic effect against high fat diet induced oxidative stress. These results were further corroborated with findings of histopathological study on myocardium, elastic artery and coronary arterial architecture.
Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Emblica Officinalis (EEO) indicates its cardio protective efficacy against rats fed with high fat diet.
Keywords: Emblica officinalis, high fat diet, histopathology, pathophysiology, oxidative stress, vascular integrity.
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