Background: Cancer is a multi-factorial disease including alterations in the cell signalling pathways.
Currently, several drugs are in use to treat cancer but such drugs show negative side effects on normal cells and
cause severe toxicity.
Methods: The current research is mainly focused on medicinal plants with potential therapeutic efficacy in the
treatment of cancer without any adverse effects on normal cells. In this regard, garlic and its active compounds
including diallyl sulfide, diallyl trisulfide, ajoene, and allicin have been established to suppress the growth of cancer
and killing of cancer cells.
Result: The review focuses on garlic and its active compounds chemopreventive effect through modulating various
cell signalling pathways. Additionally, garlic and its active compound were established to induce cell cycle arrest at
the G0/G1 phase and G2/M phases in cancer cells, increase the expression of tumor suppressor genes, inhibit the
angiogenesis process, induction of apoptosis and modulation of various other genetic pathways.
Conclusion: This review sketches the diverse chemopreventive activities of garlic and their active ingredients in the
management of cancer mainly focusing on cell signalling pathways.