Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation. Myths and Realities with Regard to Cardiovascular Risk

Author(s): Giovanna Muscogiuri*, Luigi Barrea, Barbara Altieri, Carolina Di Somma, Harjit pal Bhattoa, Daniela Laudisio, Guillaume T. Duval, Gabriella Pugliese, Cédric Annweiler, Francesco Orio, Hana Fakhouri, Silvia Savastano, Annamaria Colao.

Journal Name: Current Vascular Pharmacology

Volume 17 , Issue 6 , 2019

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Abstract:

Vitamin D and calcium are considered crucial for the treatment of bone diseases. Both vitamin D and calcium contribute to bone homeostasis but also preserve muscle health by reducing the risk of falls and fractures. Low vitamin D concentrations result in secondary hyperparathyroidism and contribute to bone loss, although the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism varies, even in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency. Findings from observational studies have shown controversial results regarding the association between bone mineral density and vitamin D/calcium status, thus sparking a debate regarding optimum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium for the best possible skeletal health. Although most of the intervention studies reported a positive effect of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D on bone in patients with osteoporosis, this therapeutic approach has been a matter of debate regarding potential side effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Thus, the aim of this review is to consider the current evidence on the physiological role of vitamin D and calcium on bone and muscle health. Moreover, we provide an overview on observational and interventional studies that investigate the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on bone health, also taking into account the possible CV side-effects. We also provide molecular insights on the effect of calcium plus vitamin D on the CV system.

Keywords: Vitamin D, cardiovascular system, calcium, myocardial infarction, stroke, bone health.

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VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2019
Page: [610 - 617]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1570161117666190408165805
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