Background: The efficient analytical method for the analysis of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs) in a biological fluid is important for determining the toxicological aspects
of such long-term used therapies.
Methods: In the present work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced into a hollow fiber by chitosan
sol-gel assisted-solid/ liquid phase microextraction (MWCNTs-HF-CA-SPME) method followed
by the high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC–DAD) was developed
for the determination of three NSAIDs, ketoprofen, diclofenac, and ibuprofen in human urine samples.
MWCNTs with various dimensions were characterized by various analytical techniques. The extraction
device was prepared by immobilizing the MWCNTs in the pores of 2.5 cm microtube via chitosan
sol-gel assisted technology while the lumen of the microtube was filled with few microliters of
1-octanol with two ends sealed. The extraction device was operated by direct immersion in the sample
Results: The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency of the selected NSAIDs have been examined.
The method showed good linearity R2 ≥ 0.997 with RSDs from 1.1 to 12.3%. The limits of detection
(LODs) were 2.633, 2.035 and 2.386 µg L-1, for ketoprofen, diclofenac, and ibuprofen, respectively.
The developed method demonstrated a satisfactory result for the determination of selected drugs
in patient urine samples and comparable results against reference methods.
Conclusion: The method is simple, sensitive and can be considered as an alternative for clinical laboratory
analysis of selected drugs.