A Brief History of Modern Endocrinology and Definitions of a True Hormone

Author(s): Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi, Asghar Ghasemi*.

Journal Name: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets
(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders)

Volume 19 , Issue 8 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background and Objective: An overview of the history of endocrinology indicates that definitions of some initially developed concepts, including the term ‘hormone’ have been changed over time. This review provides a historical overview of current definitions of ‘hormone’ and the criteria of a true hormone. In addition, a brief history of hormone-related concepts and their transformation over time are discussed.

Results: Classically, a hormone is a chemical substance secreted into the bloodstream and acts on distant tissues, usually in a regulatory fashion. Several newly discovered bioregulators and chemical signaling molecules are far from the classical definition of a true hormone and could not fulfill many relevant criteria. Major developments in the field of endocrinology accompanied by the complex terminology, currently used to describe hormonal actions of chemical messengers, underscore the need of the revision of such classical concepts.

Conclusion: Complex terminology currently used to describe different hormonal actions of chemical messengers, suggests that it is time to conceptualize the term hormone and revise its classical definition.

Keywords: Endocrinology, hormone, endocrine organs, endocrine glands, parahormone, circadian rhythms.

[1]
Loriaux, L. A biographical history of endocrinology; John Wiley & Sons, 2016.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781119205791]
[2]
Kiple, K.F.; Graham, R.R.; Frey, D.; Browne, A. The Cambridge world history of human disease1 st ed.. Cambridge University Press,, 1993.
[3]
Medvei, V.C. A History of Endocrinology; Springer Nether-lands, 1982.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-7304-6]
[4]
Azizi, F. Endocrinology Is Fascinating. Int. J. Endocrinol. Metab., 2016, 14(4), e42228-e42228.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijem.42228] [PMID: 28144252]
[5]
Nabipour, I.; Burger, A.; Moharreri, M.R.; Azizi, F. Avicenna, the first to describe thyroid-related orbitopathy. Thyroid, 2009, 19(1), 7-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2008.0299] [PMID: 19119980]
[6]
Tata, J.R. One hundred years of hormones. EMBO Rep., 2005, 6(6), 490-496.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.embor.7400444] [PMID: 15940278]
[7]
Berthold, A.A. Transplantation der hoden. Arch. Anat. Physiol., 1849, 42-46.
[8]
Murray, G.R. Note on the Treatment of Myxoedema by Hypodermic Injections of an Extract of the Thyroid Gland of a Sheep. BMJ, 1891, 2(1606), 796-797.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.1606.796] [PMID: 20753415]
[9]
Schwartz, T.B. Henry Harrower and the turbulent beginnings of endocrinology. Ann. Intern. Med., 1999, 131(9), 702-706.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-131-9-199911020-00012] [PMID: 10577334]
[10]
Schwartz, M.W. Can the history of modern endocrinology shape the future of obesity? Mol. Endocrinol., 2015, 29(2), 155-157.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2014-1399] [PMID: 25629595]
[11]
Laycock, J.; Meeran, K. The Molecular Basis of Hormones.Integrated Endocrinology;; Laycock, J.; Meeran, K., Eds.. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK, 2013, pp. 1-42.
[12]
Keppel Hesselink, J.M. The terms ‘autacoid’, ‘hormone’ and ‘chalone’ and how they have shifted with time. Auton. Autacoid Pharmacol., 2015, 35(4), 51-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aap.12037] [PMID: 27028114]
[13]
Setchell, B.P. The testis and tissue transplantation: historical aspects. J. Reprod. Immunol., 1990, 18(1), 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0378(90)90020-7] [PMID: 2213727]
[14]
Jameson, J.L. Principles of endocrinology.Endocrinology: ADULT & PEDIATRIC;; Jameson, J. L., Ed.. Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA 19103-2899, 2016, pp. 3-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-18907-1.00001-9]
[15]
Eknoyan, G. Emergence of the concept of endocrine function and endocrinology. Adv. Chronic Kidney Dis., 2004, 11(4), 371-376.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ackd.2004.07.003] [PMID: 15492974]
[16]
Norman, A.W.; Henry, H.L. Hormones: An Introduction. In: Hormones (Third Edition);; Norman, A. W.; Henry, H. L., Eds.. Academic Press: San Diego,, 2015.
[17]
Wilson, J.D. Endocrinology: survival as a discipline in the 21st century? Annu. Rev. Physiol., 2000, 62(1), 947-950.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.physiol.62.1.947] [PMID: 10845119]
[18]
Goodarzi, M.O. Genetics of Common Endocrine Disease: The Present and the Future. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2016, 101(3), 787-794.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-3640] [PMID: 26908105]
[19]
Kirmani, S. Molecular genetic testing in endocrinology - a practical guide. Endocr. Pract., 2012, 18(1), 85-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP11364.RA] [PMID: 22336444]
[20]
Bayliss, W.M.; Starling, E.H. The mechanism of pancreatic secretion. J. Physiol., 1902, 28(5), 325-353.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1902.sp000920] [PMID: 16992627]
[21]
The Croonian lectures on the chemical correlation of the func-tions of the body. Lancet, 1905, 166(4275), 339-341.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(01)11877-5]
[22]
Schafer, S. An introduction to the study of internal secretion, general consideration.The endocrine organs; Longmans, Green and Co: London, UK, 1924.
[23]
Henderson, J. Ernest Starling and ‘Hormones’: an historical commentary. J. Endocrinol., 2005, 184(1), 5-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.1.06000] [PMID: 15642778]
[24]
Melmed, S. Williams textbook of endocrinology; Elsevier Health Sciences, 2016.
[25]
Huxley, J.S. Chemical regulation and the hormone concept. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc., 1935, 10(4), 427-441.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1935.tb00491.x]
[26]
Vasan, R.S. Endocrine and metabolic disorders.Textbook of Medicine; ; Vasan, R.S., Ed.; Orient Blackswan; . , 1998.
[27]
Hadley, E.M.; Levine, E.L. The vertebrate endocrine system.Endocrinology, (6th Edition); Pearson Education: New Jersey, 2006, pp. 17-38.
[28]
Pickrell, K.D. Miller-Keane encyclopedia and dictionary of medicine, nursing, and allied health. Hosp. Health Netw., 2003, 77(8), 70.
[29]
Farlex Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary; Splinting, 2012.
[30]
Nussey, S.; Whitehead, S. Principles of endocrinology. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach, BIOS Scientific Publishers: Oxford OX4 IRE, UK. 2001, 1-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450437_chapter_1]
[31]
Csaba, G. Why do hormone receptors arise? An introductio.Development of Hormone Receptors; Csaba, G., Ed.; Birkhiiuser Verlag, 1987.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-9291-9_1]
[32]
Catt, K.J.; Dufau, M.L. Basic concepts of the mechanism of action of peptide hormones. Biol. Reprod., 1976, 14(1), 1-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod14.1.1] [PMID: 177105]
[33]
Hadley, E.M.; Levine, E.L. Introduction to Endocrinology.Endocrinology, (6th Edition); Pearson Education: New Jersey, 2006, pp. 1-16.
[34]
Biologic Rhythms in Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Yvan Touitou, Erhard Haus (Eds.). In: Katenkamp, D., Ed.;. Springer- Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York-London-Paris-Tokyo-Hong Kong (1993), 730 pages with 347 figures and 54 tables. Price: Hardcover DM 298., ISBN: 3-540-54461-5. Urban & Fischer:;; , 1993.
[35]
Wiener, N. Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine; MIT press, 1961.
[36]
Rolleston, H. The history of endocrinology. BMJ, 1937, 1(3984), 1033-1036.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.3984.1033] [PMID: 20780673]
[37]
Low, M. J Neuroendocrinology In: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology (Thirteenth Edition); Melmed, S.; Polonsky, K. S.; Larsen, P. R.; Kronenberg, H. M., Eds. Content Repository Only!: Philadelphia, . , 2016.
[38]
Re, R.N. Toward a theory of intracrine hormone action. Regul. Pept., 2002, 106(1-3), 1-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-0115(02)00031-9] [PMID: 12047903]
[39]
Re, R.N. The intracrine hypothesis and intracellular peptide hormone action. BioEssays, 2003, 25(4), 401-409.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.10248] [PMID: 12655647]
[40]
Tan, D.X.; Manchester, L.C.; Hardeland, R.; Lopez-Burillo, S.; Mayo, J.C.; Sainz, R.M.; Reiter, R.J. Melatonin: a hormone, a tissue factor, an autocoid, a paracoid, and an antioxidant vitamin. J. Pineal Res., 2003, 34(1), 75-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-079X.2003.02111.x] [PMID: 12485375]
[41]
Petrovsky, N.; Harrison, L.C. Th1 and Th2: swinging to a hormonal rhythm. Immunol. Today, 2015, 16(12)
[42]
Bolander, F. Introduction and general endocrinology.Mo-lecular Endocrinology; Bolander, F., Ed.; Academic Press: California, USA, 2004, pp. 3-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012111232-5/50001-4]
[43]
Stenman, U.H. Standardization of hormone determinations. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2013, 27(6), 823-830.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2013.10.007] [PMID: 24275193]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2019
Page: [1116 - 1121]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1871530319666190326142908
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 36
HTML: 2
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1