Background: The isolated effect of vedolizumab on increased postoperative complications
remains debated, similar to the controversial data on anti-TNF and postoperative complications.
Objective: To determine the risk of vedolizumab on postoperative complications.
Methods: A review of the literature available to date on studies comparing postoperative outcomes in
vedolizumab-treated versus non-vedolizumab-treated patients was performed. Studies were stratified
by those which combined all inflammatory bowel disease together, those specifically focusing on
Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis individually, and those which included pediatric patients alone.
Results: The data remains controversial in both the adult and pediatric literature regarding the association
of vedolizumab and increased postoperative complications. The strongest association between vedolizumab
and an increased risk of postoperative infectious complications seems to be in the Crohn’s
Conclusion: Vedolizumab may be associated with an increased risk of postoperative infectious complications
in Crohn’s disease, but the literature remains controversial due to difficulty in isolating the
effect of the biologic alone in a chronically ill, heterogeneous patient population who are on multiple
medications including corticosteroids.